Ulrich, K. T.; Eppinger, S. D.
(2008) Product Design and Development.
McGraw Hill, New York
Leach, N. ed., 1997.
Rethinking architecture: a reader in cultural theory. Psychology Press.
Hays, K.M. ed., 2000.
Architecture theory since 1968. MIT Press.
Gibbons, A.S. and Rogers,
P.C., 2009. The architecture of instructional theory. Instructional-design
theories and models, 3, pp.305-326.
Fisher, S. (2015) Philosophy
and the Tradition of Architectural Theory, accessed from https://plato.stanford.edu
Albers, A., Deigendesch, T.,
Turki, T. and Müller, T., 2010. Patterns for design in microtechnology.
Microsystem Technologies, 16(8-9), pp.1537-1545.
This might be connected with the
architectural theories along with the personal and communal utility in the
formation and display of formulation along with the realization and assumption
of the architectural objects. It has been learnt from the architects,
historians and critics that a reflection should be put on the basic and driving
abstractions and critics that formulate the environment in the process of
planning-oriented fashion. In order to get the appropriate prescriptions in
architect needs communal and moral values. It is believed that the theorist is
unconventional who does not make a reference with “utilitas” that can be
defined communally and otherwise. Frequently, the native architectural theory
is merged with the utility to style; therefore, for our evaluative concepts,
beauty. This is the locus point of Vitruvian too that is followed by a range of
people currently. In context to Albert, it has been learnt that his work that
influences the current and future generation is based on hard work, research
and learning and applicability of various phases of development for the
implementation of architectural principles. The use of innovative means in the
process of architectural development cannot be achieved unless there is a
continuous effort of learning.
domain of architectural theory and principles, the contribution of Albert Albers
cannot be neglected. He has been an influencer for his peers and future
generation because of his continuation of work and his thoughts. He has been
focused in his field of architecture to apply the methods and concepts which
are complex and intricate. He has been a learner and user of functionalities
and functions. He has seen development and his experience in domain of
development. He understands and utters that the architectural processes and
methods support complex tasks of development and each practitioner needs to
keep pace with current and mega trends. He has put a focus on daily work task
with organizations along with a methodological support in the process of
architectural work. He has mentioned numerous approaches in the environment of
academic to magnify the weaknesses for synthesising the complex problems when
such solutions are applied on architectural field.
the theory of architectural reflects a codification for use of practical
knowledge of architecture. The theory and principles are based on the questions;
currently what knowledge we have about categorization of architecture, how the
study in the field of architecture should be performed and it looks into the
means by which few aspects are explained about the architectural practices;
such as spatial structure as mentioned by Hanson and Hillier in 1984. Secondly,
the theory of architect is comprised of the didactic and prescriptive
expression with a mean to look at the growth of various channels in which the
field performs and the grounds of architectural practice in terms of
psychological, moral, social and theoretical bases. A way to evaluate the native theory of
architecture in historical form is the progressive effort for accommodating
difference of concepts in better form for the practice and objects of
architecture. By musing the varying principles and concepts, each theory calls
for a possible viable option whereas this may not be deemed as methodologically
palatable to decipher the merger of norms and analysis for evaluation and
construction. This is an instructive way for location of architectural theories
that are situated through stated values. The aspect of value and native theory
offers a contrasting conceptual framework. Hence, it can be said that the
architectural theories are connected intimately with the lives of architects
who are practicing (Fisher, 2015).
characteristics of the art can be defined as a deviant and appealing from prior
work. The observer usually notices the things which he sees. To implement this
art, the builders initiated using industrial materials such as concrete,
stainless steel and stucco. The structures with decoration can be found too
with chrome, aluminium, glass block and transparent glass. There had been a
concrete vertical emphasis too. The structures of this art feature surface
decoration, specifically around the corners of tall buildings. There are
numerous buildings which had surface styles of decorations in low relief which
is merged with the geometric figures and patterns. There is an illustration of
relief panel that belongs to lobby of Express Building in the region of London.
In contrast to the range of colours and themes, it uses angular shapes. The
central position has concrete and vertical emphasis. Thus, there are numerous
elements of Art which are included in geometric shapes; such as chevron (Hays,
style of Art Deco was initiated in 1920s. The designers, artists and those
architects who worked on it wanted to generate a modern and contemporary style
in terms of that era. They purposefully ignored the echoes from past styles.
This Art was popular by name of Deco because the name was given in the
international exhibitions. The Art Deco basically celebrated the contemporary
style in the industry after developing from the instances which people observe
and practice in the era of machine language. The art was sophisticated and
sleek. It featured bold colours and smooth surfaces. It used contrasting
colours. The art has been noticed historically to be influential through
numerous contemporary art movements; such as Cubism. It was an art where the
shapes were drawn and showed as fragmented to many perspectives that are
viewable at a glance. It should be noted down that the angularity in the Art
Deco is a matter that should be focused. The architecture has used the styles
in this form of art through geometric shapes and edged corners. This is often
used along with an outline that is stepped out (Fisher, 2015).
noticeable aspects in the architectural art deco history in theory history were
not based on architects. The researcher does not need to practitioner too for
understanding the field of architecture at the core of its concept for
identification of the organizing regulations and principles. This is further
means to have an aim or vision about the reflection of the structure. However,
as per recorded by the historical record, generally theory is deemed as the
product of reflection of practitioners. Such fact shapes the form and nature of
the structured genre, at the level of minimum comparative notion towards its
goals and for the reasonable expectations that are persistent among various
consumers of that genre (Hays, 2000).
The modernist activity in the field
of architecture was announced broadly, beyond the form of architecture, in a
range of statements of polemic by Sullivan in 1896 who formulated the
functionalist motto, “form ever follows function”, by Le Corbusier in 1923, who
put an emphasis on the character of architecture that should be crafted by
implication of technological possibilities and by Loos in 1913 who called
ornament as “criminal. The theory of architecture in that era looked to have
more abstract form of intellectual inspiration in approaches of phenomenology
as purported by Norberg-Schulz in 1965, Baird and Jencks in 1969, Koenig
semiotic exploration in 1964 and Rasmussen in 1959 with a Marxist analysis by
Tafuri in 1973.
The architectural theory as polemic
or didactic pursuit was basically launched in the era of Renaissance along with
Leon Alberti in 1485. He presented a Vitruvius recovery and a tribute in
outward direction as a definitive architectural pronouncement of aims; therefore
it is the measure of the work and theoretical bases of architect. Later on,
there were few theoretical developments along with Renaissance and contemporary
perspective explorations as mentioned by Alberti. The continuation was observed
in the architectural work of Bosse in 1643) and Desargues in 1642. The human
diversity and focus on enlightenment on nature of humans was represented by
Laugier in 1753. The criticism on art was initiated by Winckelmann in 1764 and
it was then rediscovered with classicism by Polladio in 1570.
Theories and principles of
architecture are deemed as fresh as a mushrooming sub-discipline. The tradition
of architectural theory encircles crucial commentary and detailing of movements
or styles or architectural works. It is based on guidelines and instructions
for construction of architectural structure. It is based on the musings of
building styles and types. It advocates for fresh approaches for the practice
and discipline of architecture. Historically, it ranges from the era of
Vitruvius till now. From the perspective of philosophy, the native tradition of
architectural theory introduces the means for exploration of conceptual
foundations and for the establishment of foundations for the practice of architect,
thought of structure and history of architecture. It looks into the means by
which theoretical architectural schemes varied for insights along with the
philosophical aesthetics which might have with the theory of architecture.
This essay will provide and define
the theories and principles of architectural period and will elaborate the
characteristics of Art Deco architecture style. Moreover, it is an aim to
demonstrate the work of Albert Albers. This essay will investigate the means by
which he has influenced the subsequent generation and peers because of his work
Name of Institute
Name of Student
Theories and Principles of