The Metamorphosis” was Kafka’s father disapproval of

The “Metamorphosis” is a novel that has been analyzed many times by an extensive amount of people. People have analyzed it in a multitude of perspectives such as psychological, sociological, political, philosophical, psychoanalytical, historical, and many more (Corngold). Even though the novella has been analyzed in many different perspectives, each perspective has agreed that the themes of guilt, judgement, retribution, and alienation are contained in the core of the narrative (Corngold).  The novella was written by a man named Franz Kafka and was published 1915 (Silet). Kafka’s life has influenced majority of the plot of “The Metamorphosis”. In “The Metamorphosis”, Kafka uses a biographical approach to show the relationship between the main character of the novella, Gregor Samsa, and his own life. Before delving into how Kafka uses a biographical approach in “The Metamorphosis”, first a brief synopsis of Kafka’s life should to be told. Kafka was born on July 3, 1883, in Prague. This is the capital of what is now the Czech Republic. Franz Kafka studied law at the University of Prague. After his studies, he worked in insurance and wrote in the evenings. In 1923, he moved to Berlin to focus on writing, but died of tuberculosis shortly after (Robertson). In his life, Kafka had a very conflicted relationship with his family, especially his father. He used this conflicted relationship with his family members in his literary works. Some aspects of Kafka’s life that was implemented in “The Metamorphosis” was Kafka’s father disapproval of his writing and his relationship with his younger sister. There are many biographical connections to Kafka’s life that are seen in “The Metamorphosis”. Kafka’s portrayal of Gregor’s dad being dishonest and also having a strained relationship with him is due to Kafka’s father being disapproving of his writing. The author also incorporates his good relationship with his sister and shows it through Gregor and Grete’s relationship. Kafka also shows the drive he had to help out his family by having Gregor still wanting to go to work to support his family even though he has turned into a bug. In Prague, where Kafka was born, he was an outcast due to his German-Jewish heritage. The implementation of being an outcast was in “The Metamorphosis” by having Gregor turned into a bug and being ousted by his family. During his time with having tuberculosis, this was the time in which Kafka wrote his famous novella, “The Metamorphosis”. Gregor’s incoming death as a bug is connected to Kafka because the novella was written at a time in which Kafka was going to die. Grego transforming into a bug made him useless to his family. Kafka used his thoughts of being useless from his time of becoming old and being stricken with disease and used these thought to portrays Gregor’s thoughts about himself. One of the last biographical connection from Kafka’s life and his novella, “The Metamorphosis”, is the death of Gregor. The death of Gregor was caused by his father throwing an apple at him which caused him to feel immense physical and mental pain. This can be connected to Kafka because he was feeling immense pain when he had tuberculosis and mental pain from his father. His father caused him immense mental pain because he was disapproving of Kafka’s relationship with a girl and his writing (Robertson). To truly understand “The Metamorphosis” and the biographical approach Kafka had taken with the novella, one must find the deeper meaning in the literary work. In the novella, there are three acts. Each act has Gregor gradually becoming weaker and more of a bug than human. With Kafka dying of tuberculosis, he might have written each act the way he felt at the time of the writing. When diagnosed with tuberculosis this could have marked when he turned into a metaphorical bug. Then in the second act his condition gets worse like when Gregor’s transformation becomes worse. Lastly, in the third act he finally dies and Kafka might have felt like he was on the brink of death when writing the third act of the novella. Another way to look at the deeper meaning of Gregor’s transformation is that it is inevitable for us to transform into a bug and die. Kafka was a known existentialist and was always trying to find the meaning of life. His existentialist way of thinking could have influenced the way in which Gregor transforms through the acts and then dies. In conclusion, Kafka’s use of a biographical approach in “The Metamorphosis” has allowed it to become one the best novellas in the twentieth century. The biographical approach has made it easier for the audience to relate to Gregor because Kafka incorporated his feeling of alienation in the real world into his novella. The author’s hardships in real life has also made it into the novella and these hardships are also very relatable to the audience. All in all, the biographical connections between Kafka and his family and Gregor and his family enabled Kafka to write a compelling novella.

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