silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) which are less likely to cause ecological damage
have been identified as potential replacement of synthetic chemical
insecticides. Hence the need to use green synthesized Ag NPs for the control of
mosquitoes causing many diseases. The results described below were based on
plant mediated Ag NPs and have been tested against the larvae of mosquito.
Gnanadesigan et al., (2011) synthesized Ag NPs with Rhizophora mucronata leaf
extract to control the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The
LC50 and LC90 values of the synthesized Ag NP were identified as 0.585 mg/L and
2.615 mg/L for i and 0.891 mg/L and 6.291 mg/L for Cx. quinquefasciatus.
et al., (2012) evaluated the larvicidal activities to determine the efficacies
of synthesized Ag NPs using aqueous leaf extract of V. rosea against the larvae of malarial vector An. stephensi Liston and filariasis vector Cx. quinquefasciatus Say
(Diptera: Culicidae). Sundaravadivelan et al., (2012) tested the biolarvicidal
effect of phyto-synthesized Ag NPs using Pedilanthus
tithymaloides (L.) Poit stem extract against the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. Suman et al., (2013)
synthesized Ag NP from aqueous aerial extract of Ammannia baccifera and found
that it can effectively inhibit the activity of An. subpictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Arjunan et
al., (2013) biosynthesized gold nanoparticles using Cymbopogan citratus and
Anthocephalus cadamba and experimented on the larvicidal effect on the filarial
vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus and
observed that the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 values of 1.08 and 2.76
ppm for gold nanoparticles and 21.82 and 79.52 ppm for the third instar of Cx. quinquefasciatus.
Trend of nanoparticles in mosquito
synthesis of nanoparticles in mosquito control using plant extracts, fungi and
bacteria collected here can be sorted out as 31 on plants, 11 on fungi and 3 on
bacteria in terms of subjects. Plant extracts were the prototype organisms
among them. They can be sorted as 20 on leaf, 2 on plant latex, 2 on root, 1
each on stem, fruit, seed, bark, berry, mesocarp and aerial parts respectively.
Ag NPs were used in majority of the studies followed by Au NPs. In particular, Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus were favourites for
many researchers. Out of the 45 studies performed, 6 were conducted in 2011, 12
in 2012, 14 in 2013 and 13 in 2014 so far. Almost all the plant extract studies
used Ag NPs, while fungal studies used both Ag and Au NPs in mosquito control.
In terms of nationality, all the researches were conducted in India. About 62 %
of the researches were conducted in Tamil Nadu followed by Delhi 16%,
Maharashtra 9%, West Bengal 7%, Andhra Pradesh 4% and Kerala 2%. Researchers
used only Ag, Au and Co NPs for mosquito control till now.