Terrorism most terrorist attacks was Iraq, followed

Terrorism is a demonstration of terror or violence offenly
used to make a nation or a certain group fearful in order to achieve a certain
aim. Although it is often characterized as a strategy used by a group of people
(terrorists) to give rise to fear and extreme reactions within a large
population. There are many types of terrorism such as civil unrest, Political
terrorism, Non-Political
terrorism, Quasi-terrorism,
Limited- political terrorism and
state terrorism but no proper typology
is given. John Philip Jenkins, a Distinguished Professor of History from Baylor University classifies
the terrorism into three main types: revolutionary, sub
revolutionary, and establishment terrorism. It is considered to be a
major problem for the societies worldwide in the present age where the threat of terrorism continues to cause destruction and deaths for useless means.

Not only terrorism caused a huge destruction locally
but it widely effects globally. Effects
are not limited to only an area but are destructive worldwide. According to a
famous terrorism, disputes talking site
‘terrorismanalysts.com’ the writer state that

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”The effect of Terrorism is
not limited to its actual victims. The  
consequences of terrorist attacks often go far beyond the destruction
and deaths they cause………………….terrorist attacks are designed to instill fear and
intimidate a population in order to achieve 
their political objectives”

These terrorist attacks not only caused global
disturbance, spoiled environment, country markets collapse but also had a major
part in the destruction of culture and
countries relations.  The number of terrorist attacks was high
during the early 2000’s due to the terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda on the United
States and the wars in the Middle East during this time period.

In the past year, the country
with the most terrorist attacks was Iraq, followed by
Afghanistan and Nigeria visible on Global terrorism index. Altogether, the
number of terrorist attacks in these countries amounted to 7,400 attacks.
Despite having been the country with the most terrorist attacks in 2013, there
were more fatalities
due to terrorist attacks in Afghanistan in 2011 than
in Iraq. The GTI report shows that there is a significant
decrease in the number of deaths in the top five high rated terrorism
countries.

From a global point of view, the region in the world with
the highest number of terrorist attacks in recent years was the
Near East and South Asia. The number of terrorist attacks in this region in
2011 amounted to almost 8,000.

                                    Not only
does terrorism have a massive social impact on the world, but it also has an
enormous global economic impact. The costs of terrorist
attacks by insured property losses have cost the insurance
industry billions over the past time. The bombing of the London financial
district in 1993 cost the insurance industry approximately 1 billion U.S.
dollars.

 Financial markets have proved
that they would not act against these attacks as showed by their silent
reaction after the Paris and Brussels attacks on
on. However, the long-term social damage may be more difficult to
assess. Given that the attacks in Europe have occurred at a time when the
continent is already struggling with its worst refugee crisis since World War
II, they may serve to fan the flames of anti-foreigner sentiment and spur the
rise of nationalist political parties, which may have dire consequences for
regional and global geopolitics.

Terrorism is a
risk in the business world.
For example that attacks in New York were
estimated to have a great impact as it
cost $1.7 billion on the sale and $1.75 in lost rent in 2003 by the New York
comptroller. On the BBC news channel, Mr. Younger also warned that
“hybrid warfare”, which included cyber-attacks and it was becoming an
“increasingly dangerous phenomenon”.

According to Dawn, Pakistan is one of the countries who face
high rates of terrorist attacks. The Global Terrorism Index (GTI) has proved it that
Pakistan is the fifth top terror rated country with a rating of 8.4. For 3 year, Pakistan has witnessed fewer terrorist
attacks and deaths. In 2016, there were 956 deaths from terrorism; the lowest
number in a decade. The biggest terrorist group in Pakistan is Tehrik-i-Taliban
Pakistan (TTP); which has killed the most people in Pakistan. Since 2000, TTP
has been responsible for 4,500 deaths, which account for over half of all
deaths from terrorism by terrorist groups. Since 2007, Pakistan has ranked the
fourth worst country for terrorism and on six events was ranked second.

    

               

On April 17th 2005, the Pakistan Student Association (PSA) which had partnered with the International Relations
Society (IRS), arranged a discussion
showing “Pakistan’s Contributions in the War against Terror” which further tell
about the bad impacts of terrorism to Pakistan’s infrastructure and
economy  

“Over half a million
Pakistanis have been forced to relocate and billions of dollars of
infrastructural damage has been caused as a result of terrorist activity.
Asghar a speaker claimed that the human cost to Pakistan as a result of
terrorism is one of the highest in the world.”

Even dawn news article speaks of it

“A CURSORY analysis of the START Global Terrorism Database reveals
that over the past decade, Pakistan has had the highest number of
terrorism-related deaths in the world.”

         
According to Pak Institute for
Peace Studies (PIPS) security report in 2006, 657 terrorist attacks not
only injured 1,543 people but killed 907 people. The terrorist attacks
continued to happen as a result in 2007, 1,503 terrorist attacks caused about
3,448 deaths and 5,353 injuries that is stated in PIPS security report. The
report states that,

“Pakistan faced 60 suicide attacks during 2007, which killed
at least 770, besides injuring another 1,574 people showing a visible increase in suicide attacks after Lal Masjid operation”.

In 2008 Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP)
in its yearly report told that there were estimated 67 suicide attacks in
Pakistan causing 973 people deaths. Further, a source in the investigation
agencies revealed that the total number of suicide blasts in Pakistan since
2002 went up to 140 (till 21 December 2008)

2009 is marked to be the worst of any year as 2,586
terrorist, insurgent, and
sectarian-related incidents were reported that killed 3,021 people and injured
7,334, according to the “Pakistan
Security Report 2009” published by PIPS.

According to an independent research site, pakistanbodycount.org maintained by Dr. Zeeshan-ul-hassan
Usmani a Fulbright scholar deaths from
suicide bombings up to October 2011 were 5,067 with over 13,000 injured.

 

 

The effects of terrorism are
disastrous as it is negatively impacting local, national and international
communities. Seen from a local
perspective, the terrorist attacks have
its own effects that including the injuries, deaths, and trauma on the victims. These terrorist attacks not only upset
the people but also put a bad name for the country. Some of the famous
newspapers such as dawn news also explain the attacks happened in Pakistan and
their effect on its citizen and itself. The survivors usually face stress, anxiety
and severe depression. Living a life with conversations, concerns and risks of
such violent death creates fear between people and force them live their whole
life under restriction and prohibitions. Some of the major incident such as
Peshawar army school massacre not only deeply made Pakistan citizens insecure
about their security but also it caused
about more than 150 causalities including 134 death of children

There are many causes of terrorism or unlawful
violence such as growing Injustice,
Illiteracy, Poverty and Unemployment and Dissatisfaction. many authors
and articles conclude its causes as Bruce Hoffman, author of the book ‘Inside Terrorism’, giving a valid explanation of term terrorism as well
identifies the causes of terrorism as he identifies the relation of religion
and terrorism showing a complete research
on how different religious views causes extreme terrorist behavior by Islamic,
Jewish and Christian communities. Another famous author Marc Sageman speaks in his book Understanding Terror Networks that
one of the major cause of terrorism is unevenness in cultures. Further
supporting his opinion he gives the example of Hamburg Cell, consisting of
two of the pilots in the 9/11 terrorist attacks. He further links the cause
of terrorism with religion as he says

“The global Salafi jihad is a worldwide
religious revivalist movement with the goal of reestablishing past Muslim glory
in a great Islamist state stretching from Morocco to the Philippines,
eliminating present national boundaries.”

Robert Leiken supporting the idea of Marc Sageman about the major cause of terrorism ,in his paper Europe’s Angry Muslims explains these views by discussing
how the “outsiders” Muslims from different area and the “insider” Muslims from
Europe are subjected to discrimination and situation lead to extreme tension in
these people as they start to feel themselves different from outside world.
Globalization may become a reason for the terrorism as Omer Taspinar states in Fighting Radicalism, Not “Terrorism,                      

“Globalization creates an acute awareness about
opportunities available elsewhere. This leads to frustration, victimization,
and humiliation among growing cohorts of urbanized, undereducated, and
unemployed Muslim youth who are able to make comparisons across countries.”

Kilcullen in ‘The
Accidental Guerrilla’ gives his views on causes of terrorism as he discusses how a terrorist group moves into an
area with poor government or a conflicted
area (he uses Al Qaeda specifically) to create their own place for terrorist
activities and when a foreigner tries to
intervene, unrest began and formation of other terrorist organization happen.
Perhaps the main reasons for terrorism
are religious differences, non-
supportable government actions, discrimination and many other.

Many organizations are working to prevent terrorism. The United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism
was established with
main objective to fight against terrorism. A
strategy was developed

.

After 9/11 the UN Security
Council called on states to take action to curb terrorism and it set up a Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) to monitor
progress. NATO (North Atlantic treaty organization) an
anti-terrorism organization, uses new techniques to finish and prevent terrorism.
It also makes use of its membership in Global Coalition to Defeat ISIL as it
establishes new cell at NATO Headquarters and appoints
a coordinator for checking NATO’s
efforts in the fight against terrorism on 25 May 2017. Within
weeks of the attacks, United Nations Security Council
Resolution (UNSCR) 1373 spoke with United Nations
(UN) member to stop terrorist financing. On June 7, 2013, Florindo Flores, the
leader of the Shining Path guerilla
group, was found guilty of terrorism, drug trafficking, and money laundering, and sentenced to life in prison and a fine of
$183 million.The reduction in
deaths from terrorism in Pakistan is due to Operation Zarb-e-Azb by the
Pakistani Army started in mid-2014.

                To reduce terrorism, we should  do work individually such as posting on social
media, taking a look of the society
around, supporting organization against terrorism, acting equal toward other
people to clear our differences and to reduce poverty by offering money to
poor. Some people have a certain opinion that by providing education we can
solve this problem but we have to also identify that the increasing
globalization or less literacy rate is not only the problem that causes
terrorism. Terrorism is not an issue to be solved for just government, it is a
global problem to be fought against. After reading many articles and
researching on it, I found that terrorism can’t be fought until we are united
to fight against it. In my opinion, terrorism is due to racism, discrimination,
injustice and religious differences which important to be stopped as it not
only affect a small reign but a bigger place hence my claim is proved

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