SAARTHAK the theory and practice of assessing

SAARTHAK
BANSAL    AIP A1 BPHARM    A4513317019

 

 

 

INDEX –

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1)      
Acknowledgement

2)      
Environmental Health

3)      
Toxicology Brief

4)      
History

5)      
Testing Methods

6)      
Types of Toxicology

7)      
Toxicity Levels

8)      
Reference

 

 

Acknowledgement –

 

I would like to express my special thanks
of gratitude to my teacher ………………………. …………….who gave me the golden opportunity
to do this wonderful project on the topic ………..………………………., which also helped me
in doing a lot of Research and i came to know about so many new things I am
really thankful to them.
Secondly i would also like to thank my parents
and friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this project within the limited
time frame.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ENVIRONMENTAL
HEALTH  –

Environmental
health is the branch of public health that is concerned with
all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human
health. Health is the science, practice, and study of a human’s well-being and
their health and preventing illnesses and human injuries. Other terms referring
to or concerning environmental health are environmental public health, and public health protection / environmental health protection. Environmental health and Environmental protection are very much interrelated . Environmental health is
focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health,
whereas environmental protection is concerned with protecting the natural
environment for the benefit of human health and the ecosystem. Research in the
environmental health field tries to limit the harmful exposures through natural
things such as soil, water, air food, etc.

Environmental health has been defined in a 1999 document
by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

“Those aspects of the human
health and disease that are
determined by factors in the environment.”  It also refers to the theory and practice of
assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can potentially
affect health.

 

Environmental health as
used by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, includes both the direct
pathological effects of chemicals, radiation and some biological agents, and
the effects (often indirect) on health and well being of the broad physical,
psychological, social and cultural environment, which includes housing, urban
development, land use and transport.

 

There are five basic disciplines
generally contribute to the field of environmental health: environmental
epidemiology, toxicology, exposure science, environmental engineering, and
environmental law.

Here in this article , TOXICOLOGY has been  explained taking environmental health
sciences in context …

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What
is toxicology?

 

Toxicology
is a field of science that helps us understand the harmful effects that chemicals,
substances, or situations, can have on people, animals, and the environment.
Some refer to toxicology as the “Science of Safety” because as a field it has
evolved from a science focused on studying poisons and adverse effects of
chemical exposures, to a science devoted to studying safety.

Toxicology
uses the power of science to predict what, and how chemicals may cause harm and
then shares that information in the interest of public health to protect them.

Toxicology is a discipline, which goes hand in hand with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of
the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. The relationship between dose
and its effects on the exposed organism is
of high significance in toxicology. Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage
(and whether it is acute or chronic), route of exposure, species, age, sex, and
environment

 

Who are Toxicologists?

Toxicologists study the safety and
biological effects of drugs, chemicals, agents, and other substances on living
organisms. They develop methods to determine harmful effects, the dosages that
cause those effects, and safe exposure limits.

They may
also investigate the relationship between dose and effect, which can be
influenced by factors such as the dosing regimen (single large exposure vs.
continuous smaller exposures), route of exposure (oral, dermal, nasal), age,
gender, and environment. Toxicology brings together a wide variety of fields,
including chemistry, biology, pharmacology, human and animal medicine, and
environmental science, to help inform policies and regulations to protect both
human health and the environment.

Toxicologists
are the people who spend their time planning and conducting experiments, dosing
animals, and collecting and analyzing data. Ph.D. level toxicologists interpret
the results of studies, conduct risk assessments, and integrate data from many
different studies. They then create reports and recommendations for
organizations and regulatory agencies, putting the data into context and
providing risk analyses to ensure the safety of the products and compounds for
their intended use.

HISTORY

Paracelsus,  was a 16th century physician
and is considered to be the “Father of Toxicology.”  Toxicology as a
distinct scientific discipline is fairly modern; however, knowledge of poisons
and poisoning incidents date back to ancient times.  Humankind’s desire to
assure its health and safety has always been present, but drawing conclusions
about harmful chemicals required learning.  Initially this was done by
trial and error, where substances were tested to see which were safe and which
were best avoided.  There are written documents dating back to around 450
BCE have been recovered that describe the toxicity of venom released in a
snakebite and how it can be treated.  Cleopatra herself is reputed to have
committed suicide by a self-inflicted bite from an asp, although this widely
told narrative may be more fiction than fact.  The Greeks and Romans also
had a good knowledge of many naturally occurring poisons.  In fact, death by
poison was not an uncommon form of capital punishment.  Socrates, for
example, was sentenced to drink poisonous hemlock for supposedly corrupting the
youth of Athens and failing to recognize official state deities.  Many
expert poisoners have continued over the centuries to be employed to dispatch
spouses, other family members, and enemies of every shade and hue.

The science of toxicology
advanced significantly throughout the middle ages with an understanding of
occupational diseases connected with mining operations.  Paracelsus, was a
Swiss/German physician and alchemist best known for articulating the concept of
“The dose makes the poison,” and who is considered today to be the bedrock of
toxicology.  Over time, research toxicologists have studied the toxicity
of a vast range of chemicals, both naturally occurring and synthetic. 
More recently toxicologists have embraced “green chemistry” as an approach to
identifying and developing chemicals and products with properties that minimize
negative impacts on humans and on the environment. Modern toxicology has
tried to move away from the traditional approach of animal testing and towards
a harm-free route of experimentation.  Toxicologists
have been at the forefront in seeking alternative methods to traditional types
of testing that are at least as reliable in determining toxicity.  The
contemporary era has embraced research in additional areas including
molecular-, computational-, and nano-toxicology.  Although new
methodologies continue to be explored, for some toxic endpoints there are no
alternatives to animal testing. 

 

TESTING
METHODS

Toxicity experiments may be
conducted in vivo (using the whole animal) or in vitro (testing on isolated cells or tissues), or in silico (in a computer simulation).

 

IN
VIVO

Studies that are in vivo (Latin for “within the
living”; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects
of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including
humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism. This
is not to be confused with experiments done in vitro(“within the glass”), i.e., in a laboratory
environment using test tubes, petri dishes, etc In vivo testing is often
employed over in vitro because
it is better suited for observing the overall effects of an experiment on a
living subject.

IN VITRO

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed
with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context. Colloquially
called “test-tube experiments”, these studies in biology and its subdisciplines
are traditionally done in labware such as test tubes, flasks, Petri dishes, and microtiter plates. Studies conducted using
components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological
surroundings permit a more detailed or more convenient analysis than can be
done with whole organisms; however, results obtained from in vitro experiments may not
fully or accurately predict the effects on a whole organism. 

IN SILICO

In silico (literally Latin for “in silicon”, alluding to the mass
use of silicon for semiconductor computer chips) is an
expression used to mean “performed on computer or via computer simulation.” The phrase was coined in 1989 as an allusion to
the Latin phrases in vivo, in vitro, and in situ, which are commonly used in biology , refer to experiments
done in living organisms, outside living organisms, and where they are found in
nature, respectively

TYPES OF TOXICOLOGY

 

 

Analytical toxicology:

It is the
branch of toxicology which deals with the study of detection and assay of
poisonous chemicals including their metabolites that could affect the
biological system.

Applied toxicology:

It is the
application of new and modern methods or technologies for early detection of
toxicants in the field setting or practice area.

Clinical toxicology:

It is mainly
involved in the study of diagnosis and treatment of poisoning that can occurrin
humans.

Veterinary toxicology:

Veterinary
toxicology focus in the study of diagnosis and treatment of animal poisoning
including the transmission of toxin from animals to humans via milk, meat,
fish, food stuff and etc.

Environmental toxicology:

It is the
branch of toxicology in which study of presence of different toxicants
including their metabolites and degradation products in the environment and
their effects on humans and animals.

Industrial toxicology:

It is the
study of selective and specific are of environmental toxicology.

 Medical toxicology –

 It is a subspecialty of medicine focusing
on toxicology and
providing the diagnosis, management, and prevention of poisoning and
other adverse effects due to medications, occupational and environmental toxicants, and biological agents. Medical
toxicologists are involved in the assessment and treatment of a wide variety of
problems including acute or chronic poisoning, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug overdoses, envenomations, substance abuse, industrial accidents, and
other chemical exposures.

Medical toxicology is officially recognized
as a medical subspecialty by the American
Board of Medical Specialties. Its
practitioners are physicians,
whose primary specialization is generally in emergency medicine, occupational medicine, or pediatrics.

Medical toxicology is closely related
to clinical toxicology, with the latter discipline encompassing non-physicians
as well (generally pharmacists or scientists).

 

TOXICITY
LEVELS – WATER

 

PARAMETER

Average
values of 7 sites and six bimonthly measurements

               STANDARD VALUES

 

 

WHO
12

EPA
9

CCME
8

ICMR
11

BIS
7

EU
10

sulphate

             278.18

 500

250

250

400

400

250

pH

                8.70

 8

9.5

9.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

EC

                1345

 2500

1500

2500

300

300

2500

Total Hardness

                332

300

200

500

300

300

500

chloride

               20.46

250

250

250

1000

1000

250

Value of K

                ——

7.42

8.40

7.73

8.04

8.04

8.64

 

TOXICITY
LEVELS – AIR:

Air Quality Index
(AQI) Values

Levels of Health Concern

Colors

When the AQI is in this
range:

..air quality conditions are:

…as symbolized by this
color:

0 to 50

Good

Green

51 to 100

Moderate

Yellow

101 to 150

Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups

Orange

151 to 200

Unhealthy

Red

201 to 300

Very Unhealthy

Purple

301 to 500

Hazardous

Maroon

x

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