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Research Paper: What human rights are, their features,
importance and types.

 

What are human rights?

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Human rights are standards that make environment where whole people can
live with dignity, freedom, equality, and under justifiable and peaceful
condition as well. Every person possesses these rights just due to they
are born as human. They should be provided with these kinds of right without  any discrimination which means that it does
not matter where they are live, how old they are, which  religion they are believed , which political
party they are support, and healthy or unhealthy. Human rights have undeniable importance
over development of individuals and their societies as well. I

Human rights are also considered as a part of international law and
consist of set of rules which all countries are required to follow. In this
way, many countries cooperate for human rights issues in local and
international level. II

 

Importance of human rights

The human rights have got more importance after the Second World War –
especially after the United Nation’s Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR) in
1948. This declaration provides that all the human beings have the rights which
reflect the minimum standards required for people to live whole life with
dignity. Human rights provide equal and fair opportunity for all people, which means
that people can choose how to live, how to express themselves, and what kind of
government they want to support with the complete freedom. In addition, Human rights
assure people
  in order to provide their basic needs which
have prominent importance to survive in any society. These can be food, living place,
and basic educational knowledge, so they can get all of these benefits from
human right. Furthermore, Human Right not only reassuring their life, liberty,
equality, and security but also protects people freedom from any kind of
violation which can be Government, organization, and individual. Finally, Human
Rights have vital importance in any society. III

 

The main features of human
rights.

Human rights are moral values based
on morality such as honour, disgust, not just law.  They require obligatory compliance because they are necessary for the protection
and realization of certain fundamental, basic and universal human values
and interests. They are instrumental principles
in the sense that we don’t want them for their own sake; they are means for the
creation of better life quality. They are universal: all human beings have certain rights, for no other
reason than their humanity and the values attached to humanity. They are independent from
legal/social/cultural/religious recognition: all human beings have human rights.They
are unconditional: people have
rights without conditions. They are inalienable: since rights are owned by human beings because of
their humanity, these rights aren’t given and can’t be taken away; people still
have rights when those rights are violated. They are limited: rights have to be balanced against each other
because respect for one right can imply a violation of another right;
balancing means imposing limitations on some rights for the benefit of other
rights. II

I.           
Beitz, Charles R. (2009). The idea
of human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press

II.           
Moyn, Samuel (2010). The last utopia: human
rights in history

III.           
Aryeh Neier (2012) The
International Human Right
Movement History

 

 

 

 They are multidimensional:
human rights are not just a matter between citizens and the state; they are
addressed at everyone and impose duties on everyone. Corporations and
other organizations also have to be mindful of their operations’ human rights
implications. This means that human rights also function in a trans-national
and trans-generational dimension. III

 

Classification of human
rights

Human rights mainly organised and arranged an universal level which is the
most known categorisation of human rights: civil and political rights,
and economic, social and cultural rights. We can summarize this classification
in 3 different ways: indivisibility, categorization, three generations.VI

1.     
Indivisibility

The UDHR involved both economic, social and cultural rights and
civil and political rights because it is directly related to the principle that
the distinctive right could be successful if they exist in collaboration. In other
word, if one of this right was broken ,they would never be successful .So all
of these right have distinctive combination with each other and also every
society should provide indivisibility of these rights  IV

2.     
Categorisation

In this classification, economic, social and cultural rights are argued to
be:

·        
aspirations
or goals, as opposed to real ‘legal’ rights

·        
ideologically
divisive/political which directly connected  the idea no consensus on what can or  cannot be protected as a right

·        
non-justiciable
which mean that they cannot be judged according to law.

·        
positive
which is directly related to taking some steps by the help of state.

·        
progressive
which means  that they require a significant
change and implementation over the period

·        
resource-intensive
which they need financial resources in order to  provide.

·        
vague
which means that do define them is not easy because they have more one meaning .
V

Similarly civil and political rights are categorized as.

·        
capitalist

·        
cost-free

 

 

 

 

IV.           
Donnelly, Jack
(2003). Universal human rights in theory and practice

V.           
Doebbler, Curtis F. J
(2006). Introduction to international human rights law.

VI.           
Shaw, Malcolm
(2008). International Law

 

·        
Immediate
which they can be provided easily if the state have initiative.

·        
Justiciable
which means that they can be decided according legal principles.

·        
Negative
which the state can provide them just by taking no action.

·        
non-ideological/non-political

·        
precise
which means that they are strictly stated and nobody can change them

·        
real
‘legal’ rightsIX

 

3.     
Three
generations

One of the categorisation offered  by eminent scholars which is three
generations of human rights. First generation (encourage individual to
participate civil and political part of state), second-generation economic, (which
is accepted as universally and  every society
should provide this rights ), and third generation (this right differ from civil
and political rights they are directly regaled to solidarity ). VII Out of
these generations, the third generation is mainly discussed and deprived from both
legal and political acceptance. VIII

 

 

VII.           
The International Human Rights Movement: Part of the
Problem?Harvard Human Rights Journal / Vol. 15,
Spring 2002 Link: http://harvardhrj.com/#fn1

VIII.           
“Corporations
and Human Right” Human Rights Watch.
December 15, 2007.

IX.           
“Human Right classification” Link: http://www.humanrights.is 

Research Paper: What human rights are, their features,
importance and types.

 

What are human rights?

Human rights are standards that make environment where whole people can
live with dignity, freedom, equality, and under justifiable and peaceful
condition as well. Every person possesses these rights just due to they
are born as human. They should be provided with these kinds of right without  any discrimination which means that it does
not matter where they are live, how old they are, which  religion they are believed , which political
party they are support, and healthy or unhealthy. Human rights have undeniable importance
over development of individuals and their societies as well. I

Human rights are also considered as a part of international law and
consist of set of rules which all countries are required to follow. In this
way, many countries cooperate for human rights issues in local and
international level. II

 

Importance of human rights

The human rights have got more importance after the Second World War –
especially after the United Nation’s Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR) in
1948. This declaration provides that all the human beings have the rights which
reflect the minimum standards required for people to live whole life with
dignity. Human rights provide equal and fair opportunity for all people, which means
that people can choose how to live, how to express themselves, and what kind of
government they want to support with the complete freedom. In addition, Human rights
assure people
  in order to provide their basic needs which
have prominent importance to survive in any society. These can be food, living place,
and basic educational knowledge, so they can get all of these benefits from
human right. Furthermore, Human Right not only reassuring their life, liberty,
equality, and security but also protects people freedom from any kind of
violation which can be Government, organization, and individual. Finally, Human
Rights have vital importance in any society. III

 

The main features of human
rights.

Human rights are moral values based
on morality such as honour, disgust, not just law.  They require obligatory compliance because they are necessary for the protection
and realization of certain fundamental, basic and universal human values
and interests. They are instrumental principles
in the sense that we don’t want them for their own sake; they are means for the
creation of better life quality. They are universal: all human beings have certain rights, for no other
reason than their humanity and the values attached to humanity. They are independent from
legal/social/cultural/religious recognition: all human beings have human rights.They
are unconditional: people have
rights without conditions. They are inalienable: since rights are owned by human beings because of
their humanity, these rights aren’t given and can’t be taken away; people still
have rights when those rights are violated. They are limited: rights have to be balanced against each other
because respect for one right can imply a violation of another right;
balancing means imposing limitations on some rights for the benefit of other
rights. II

I.           
Beitz, Charles R. (2009). The idea
of human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press

II.           
Moyn, Samuel (2010). The last utopia: human
rights in history

III.           
Aryeh Neier (2012) The
International Human Right
Movement History

 

 

 

 They are multidimensional:
human rights are not just a matter between citizens and the state; they are
addressed at everyone and impose duties on everyone. Corporations and
other organizations also have to be mindful of their operations’ human rights
implications. This means that human rights also function in a trans-national
and trans-generational dimension. III

 

Classification of human
rights

Human rights mainly organised and arranged an universal level which is the
most known categorisation of human rights: civil and political rights,
and economic, social and cultural rights. We can summarize this classification
in 3 different ways: indivisibility, categorization, three generations.VI

1.     
Indivisibility

The UDHR involved both economic, social and cultural rights and
civil and political rights because it is directly related to the principle that
the distinctive right could be successful if they exist in collaboration. In other
word, if one of this right was broken ,they would never be successful .So all
of these right have distinctive combination with each other and also every
society should provide indivisibility of these rights  IV

2.     
Categorisation

In this classification, economic, social and cultural rights are argued to
be:

·        
aspirations
or goals, as opposed to real ‘legal’ rights

·        
ideologically
divisive/political which directly connected  the idea no consensus on what can or  cannot be protected as a right

·        
non-justiciable
which mean that they cannot be judged according to law.

·        
positive
which is directly related to taking some steps by the help of state.

·        
progressive
which means  that they require a significant
change and implementation over the period

·        
resource-intensive
which they need financial resources in order to  provide.

·        
vague
which means that do define them is not easy because they have more one meaning .
V

Similarly civil and political rights are categorized as.

·        
capitalist

·        
cost-free

 

 

 

 

IV.           
Donnelly, Jack
(2003). Universal human rights in theory and practice

V.           
Doebbler, Curtis F. J
(2006). Introduction to international human rights law.

VI.           
Shaw, Malcolm
(2008). International Law

 

·        
Immediate
which they can be provided easily if the state have initiative.

·        
Justiciable
which means that they can be decided according legal principles.

·        
Negative
which the state can provide them just by taking no action.

·        
non-ideological/non-political

·        
precise
which means that they are strictly stated and nobody can change them

·        
real
‘legal’ rightsIX

 

3.     
Three
generations

One of the categorisation offered  by eminent scholars which is three
generations of human rights. First generation (encourage individual to
participate civil and political part of state), second-generation economic, (which
is accepted as universally and  every society
should provide this rights ), and third generation (this right differ from civil
and political rights they are directly regaled to solidarity ). VII Out of
these generations, the third generation is mainly discussed and deprived from both
legal and political acceptance. VIII

 

 

VII.           
The International Human Rights Movement: Part of the
Problem?Harvard Human Rights Journal / Vol. 15,
Spring 2002 Link: http://harvardhrj.com/#fn1

VIII.           
“Corporations
and Human Right” Human Rights Watch.
December 15, 2007.

IX.           
“Human Right classification” Link: http://www.humanrights.is

x

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