P1 Describe the scale
of the UK aviation industry, including passenger, cargo, financial and
The UK aviation sector generates turnover of £60.6 billion
and also supports over 961,000 UK jobs which many of them are high skills and
high productivity jobs. For contributions it actually contributes £52billion to
UK gross domestic product (GDP). The aviation
industry pays almost like £8.7 billion in the UK tax and invests over £15
million every year in charity, community and good causes. Normally the majority
of the UK airport passengers has been travelling to Europe. It was July 2017,
more than 8,800 flights left or entered UK airspace making it a record day for
July 1017, more than 500,000 passengers were travelling from
Heathrow and 335,000 from Gatwick, 136,000 from Stansted and 85,000 from Luton.
There was almost 150,000 who were due to depart from Manchester, 70,000 from
Birmingham as well as 55,000 from Bristol. The busiest airport serves around
75.7 million passengers per year which is London Heathrow. This is data for
Data for cargo passing through the UK airports is 2.3 million
Source of data à
2014 annual CAA statistics.
P2 Identify major UK
aviation industry changes and trends.
the national level, the totals shows that 52% growth in passengers above 2009
levels would be workable within the ongoing capacity constraints and also that
there is sufficient runway.
Jrt aircraft in service today are above 80% more fuel efficient per seat
kilometre than the very first jet in1960s. Also, the forecast generally assume
that there would be gradual improvements relative to conventional aircraft
technologies. The changes for MPPA for 2011-2016 has been increased quite a
lot. Biritsh airways was in the first rank with 37.8 mppa in 2011 and then
became 48.5 mppa in 2016. The total mppa during 2011 was 150.7 and has
increased by 41.6 in 2016 which was then 192.3
the past years, the aviation industry has been gone through several changes and
trends which is ranging frpom changing passenger demands to new technological
developments and also increasedd of sustainabiloity pressures.
The number of commercial flights at reporting UK airports is
a measure of commercial aviation activity in the UK. This normally includes both passenger and
cargo flights, but excludes military flights, general aviation and aircraft
that pass through UK airspace without landing.
P3 Describe different
types of commercial airlines.
Full serviced schedules- British Airways, Virgin
The Full Service Scheduled Airlines normally offer
their passengers inflight entertainment, checked baggage, meals on board,
beverages as well as comforts such as blankets and pillows. These things are in
the ticket price and passengers do not have to pay any extra for these
facilities. It is like a package.
Low cost scheduled- EasyJet, Ryanair
Low Cost Scheduled is the type of airline which is
known as the budget airline. These airlines don’t provide stuffs like blankets,
pillows or food as a package with the ticket price as these are budget
airlines. Low cost airlines are different as they result in lower fares and
less comforts as well, they also won’t travel outside Europe and don’t do long
Charter- Thomson, Thomas cook
Charter airline flights are normally made to order
flights by package holiday operators. These are basically the holiday makers
will choose their destination or tour operator will find and suggest the best
hotels and destination for the passenger, depending on the passenger budget and
where the passenger would like to visit the most. Charter flights goes to
various destinations such as canneries, the Spanish costa and other plenty of
the popular destinations for best holiday. Charter flights travel almost
Cargo- Scheduled, charter or integrated
Cargo airlines are airlines that are mainly dedicated
to the transport of cargo by air. Some cargo airlines are divisions or
subsidiaries of larger passenger airlines.
P4 Compare the
operating characteristics of different commercial airlines.
Full service scheduled airlines- British airways à Airlines such as
British airways do short and medium haul which has both economy and business
class. They also do long haul which has first class, business class, premium
economy and economy. They do economy class on all short haul flights within
Europe, including domestic flights within the UK. For the short haul, all the
flights from Heathrow airport have a buy on board system where drinks and
snacks must pay for. Full service scheduled airline travel to worldwide
destination and also, they provide on board facilities, entertainment.
Low cost scheduled- EasyJetà
These airlines do short haul only. They
do not provide services such as pillows, entertainment and also food and drinks
need to be paid for.
Charter airline- Thomsonà
Thomson airlines provide with economy, premium economy or extra legroom as well
in the wide body jet. They also do short haul, and medium haul. Charter
airlines are quite similar as full service scheduled airlines.
P5 Describe different
types of UK airports and their ownership.
The history of commercial airports was being developed on the sites of the
Major airport- London Heathrowà
London Heathrow airport is a public airport, own by Heathrow Airport Holdings
and operates by Heathrow Airport Limited. Major airports provide more than one
services. Major airport provides long haul, charter and short haul as well as
Regional airport- Newcastleà Newcastle airport is a public airport, own by
the Newcastle Airport Local Authority Holding company Ltd and operates by
Newcastle International Airport Ltd. The airlines in the airport operate
regular scheduled and charter services to and from Newcastle. Regional airport
is normally an airport that serves traffic within a relatively small populated
geographical area. These types of airport do not usually have customs and
immigration officer’s facilities to process traffic between countries, also,
regional are airports that have shorter runway as well.
Local airport- BlackpoolàBlackpool
airport is a public airport whose owner is Blackpool council and operates by
the Squires Gate Airport Operations Ltd. Local airport is the other name for
domestic airport, which handles only domestic flights which means the same
country. Same as regional airports, local airports as well do not have customs
and immigration facilities thus these airports can’t handle flights to or from
foreign countries as it would be very dangerous to have international flights
to these kinds of airport.
Ownership (Private, public, private/public partnership, group)
à Southend airport is an
example of private ownership airport. It is a public airport. Owns by Stobart
Group and operates by London Southend Airport Company Ltd.
P6 Compare the
operating characteristics of different types of airport.
Regional Airport- Liverpool John Lennon airport
has 6 airlines which operates regular scheduled and charter flights to and from
Liverpool. The number of passengers travelled from Liverpool John Lennon
airport in 2016 is 4,778,939. There are shops and cafes in both landside and
airside within the passenger terminal also payable lounge and a Wetherspoon pub
which passenger can use when they want. The airport provides with many other
facilities as well such as shops like duty free, currency at Travelex etc.
Restaurants as well are available in the airport in order to help passenger with
their travel. The airport also provides pre-book car parking facilities which
is a very good saving for passengers. Aspire lounge is available. Passenger can
also book the nearby airport hotel if they require which is an advantage for
passenger who lives a bit far from the airport and has early or too late
flight. The airport has one runway which is 7500 ft x 151 ft (2286m x 46m)
Asphalt with 2 handlers. The cargo tonnes in 2015 was 40,000 tonnes. Terminal passenger 4,458,500.
Major airport- London Heathrow airport is the
largest and busiest airport in the UK which has 81 airlines and the number of
destinations they serve is 194 (in 82 countries). London Heathrow airport
provide long haul, charter and short haul as well as domestic services which
has low cost scheduled, full charter and cargo airlines. 78 million passengers
travelled through Heathrow airport in 2017. The cargo volumeà 1.54 million metric
tonnes in 2016. The airport has 2 runways which is Northern 3,902m x 50m.
Southern 3,658m x 50m and also has 4 passenger terminals (numbered 2 to 4) and
a cargo terminal. There are a variety of facilities and services available at
London Heathrow and other major airports as well, car park facilities are
available as well as shopping areas, toilets, food, there is also the access to
airport lounges which is available at terminals. Also, the airport has a hotel
nearby which passenger may need.
Local airport- Blackpool airport provide with
short haul and domestic services. It has 4 airlines, also a helicopter service
to oil platforms. The number of passengers travelled through Blackpool airport
was 36,269 in 2016. The airport provides lounges but no hotels, car rental
facilities from the airport. The airport has 2 terminals. There are also 2
training schools located between the British Army camps and squires Gate and at
Weeton and Kirkham,
offers helicopter operations and also the centre of private clubs.
M1 Explain major
aviation industry changes and trends in relation to scale and contribution to
This is the trend for 2017. As per the chart, UK airports
handled 88 million terminal passengers which represents 5.2% growth against the
same quarter in 2016.
For the contribution of aviation economy, employment in the
wider economy: Changes to the number of jobs in the aviation sectors as a
result of policy measures affecting the sector are likely to be a short-term
effect, with employees eventually finding work in other sectors. About tax
revenues, the aviation contributes about 4.8 billion in tax revenues to the
Exchequer or 0.9 of UK overall tax revenue in 2007 and 2008. It was then a
further of £3 billion was contributed by its supply chain.
M2 Discuss why an
airline might base its operation from a particular airport.
An airline bases its operation in a particular airport as
the airport they airlines chose to offer a great extent of services and have
connection to major cities and holiday destinations. It might be because of the
airport terminal facilities as well and also the airline choose good business
airport as the airline as well will benefit from this. Some airlines will also
compare for the rent charged and gate space as well as take-off and landing
D1 Discuss the scale
of industry commenting on trends, operating characteristics and the
organisation within it.
The UK airports and
airlines support the UK economy and they Department for transport, CAA and
airport commission are making sure that they provide the domestic and
international connections to the UK need to grow and prosper.
For the trends in the aviation industry, it has grown a lot,
comparing to the past years. The number of jobs in this industry has increased,
airlines employ more staff than airports. Also, more people would have the
opportunity to get employed in airport which are major and also which is
situated at a place where the public would get access easily and also has
transport facilities which the public may
use to reach the airport. Low
cost airline has made big progress as their fares are cheap and also they get
lot of passenger for short haul holidays and also as the airports are usually
outside major cities, the price would not be the same as a full service
scheduled airline. Some airlines will charge a fee for credit cards,
or even a basic processing fee when buying your ticket online. Others may add
on additional taxes, which will be stated upon check-out. Low cost and
full service scheduled airlines are competitive, every airlines compete with
each other but recently low cost airlines has made good profit as they provide
cheap ticket fares and most of the holidaymakers prefer low budget airline and
go on holiday in Europe. As the rise of budget airlines has made it easier than ever to save
pennies more and more passengers will take the change to use low budget