Out Gram positive, coccus shaped organism that

Out of all the staphylococcal species, Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is the
most pathogenic bacteria. Endocarditis, brain and renal abscess, toxic shock syndrome,
and Staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome are just some of the harmful diseases that
are known to be caused to humans by these mucus membrane colonizers (Madigan
& Brock, 2015). Staphylococcus aureus
is a Gram positive, coccus shaped organism that is potentially pathogenic. It
is a large (2-3um) bacteria known for being pyogenic. It is determined that
about 30-40% of individuals are colonized by S. aureus.  S. aureus is able persist and cause
infection due to the large number of cell surface virulence factors it has. These
cell wall virulence factors include peptidoglycan and techoic acids that are
able to produce many secreted factors helping them to persist. The cell surface
structures of S. aureus are also
involved in damaging the host and also form protection to the organism from the
host’s immune system. (Schaechter, 2013)

         Humans
are the major reservoir for S. aureus.
They colonize the anterior nares, mucus membranes of humans and as well as
transient on skin, oropharynx, vagina, and feces. One of the reasons that S. aureus is dangerous is because it is
able to spread from person to person via direct contact (Schaechter, 2013). S. aureus can be spread by
airborne droplets from an infected person who coughs or sneezes. It is also
foodborne and causes severe food poisoning when contracted. Although normally
known to colonize mucus membranes, S.
aureus can penetrate into deeper tissue if the skin mucous membrane is
damaged. It is considered non-invasive as it requires wounds to move from out
to in.

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         There are different mitigation
strategies to limit S. aureus infections based on the source of
infection. In order to prevent and control Staph infections, proper hygiene is
most important. Making sure that hand washing methods and showering daily is
essential in preventing the spread of the bacteria. Due to its ability to
penetrate through damaged skin, it is important to make sure that wounds are bandaged
until they are fully healed. Avoiding the sharing of personal items such as
towels and clothing is another way to prevent the spread for the bacteria. In
terms of contracting the infection through food sources, it is important to
make sure that food handlers wash their hands before handling food. Food
handlers should not prepare food if they have nose infections, wounds, or skin
infection.  Food should be appropriately refrigerated
as the pathogen multiplies rapidly in room temperature (Foodsafety.gov, 2009). Poor hygiene can enhance the entry of the
organisms as it contributes to a moist environment for them to thrive on. Poor
hygiene is suitable for colonization and macerations of skin allowing entry of S. aureus to move into deeper tissue.
Regardless of the infection source, proper hygiene methods should be followed
to minimize the spread of the bacteria. (Schaechter,
2013)

         S. aureus infections are treated using
antibiotics. S. aureus is sensitive
to semi synthetic penicillin. However, methycillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is resistant to both
penicillin and cephalosporin. Therefore, these strains require treatments with
vancomycin. Vancomycin is considered the last line of defense because it has a
narrow therapeutic dose. There have however been known strains vancomycin-resistant
S. aureus (VRSA). Drug cocktails are
used to treat VRSA. Clindamycin has also shown some effectiveness against S. aureus. The most difficult method for
treatment with S. aureus can be IV
immunoglobin where it won’t kill the microorganism but will target the enzymes produced.
(Finks, n.d.)

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