Murdock a result of secularization, the influence

Murdock believed that the nuclear family was universal and, in every society, there will always be some form of ‘family’ (Study-Social Structure, 1949). The term nuclear family created by Murdock, 1949 is used to describe the basic family structure containing the Father, Mother and two children; This concept was far more popular 50 years ago, where individuals conformed to their societal role. However, family has deviated from tradition, changed by things that become partially accepted by society, family, marriage and partnerships.  The female role has drastically changed, it has become more common for females to stay in education longer, to help build a career, resulting in more independence, finding less security and stability in marriage. Embarking on their future and deciding what is best for them rather than conforming to the pressure of society, family and religion. It has become more normal in our society for women to have an occupation and take more of a leading role in the family dynamic. The equal rights for women have greatly improved, they are no longer dependant on their husbands in terms of education, paid work and economic aid, because it has become more accessible and acceptable for them to progress into. For women this means they have access to the same rights as males; Females actually constitute the majority in the following professions, Nurses, Nursery Practitioners, Psychologists and Accountants. However, feminists … women are socialised into the female role Prior to the 1960s divorce was an inappropriate and disgraceful act to commit and the outcome could be dreadful, especially for women. In 1923 a law equalised the grounds for divorce making it more accessible for women, this increased the divorce rate but only slightly for it was only acceptable by virtue of adultery. It was later followed by laws in 1937 and 1967 that further allowed females access to divorce due to desertion, cruelty and separation. The stigma surrounding divorce has slowly diminished due to it becoming socially acceptable. Beck-Gernsheim, 2002, states that “Individualisation is increasing”, people are more concerned with their own happiness which diminishes the worry of their family’s happiness, resulting in higher divorce rates; The family dynamic has become disorderly due to changes in society, the roles are less definitive, resulting in more separations. FEMINISTS.   Also, as a result of secularization, the influence of religion especially the Catholic Church has become less powerful making it more acceptable and common for those to partake in a legal separation.  Between 1986 and 2005, the amount of non-married men and women aged under 60 who were cohabiting in Great Britain doubled, especially divorced women and younger men in their early twenties were the most likely to cohabit. As generations pass so does perspectives and what is deemed normal; 62% of people in Britain considered sex before marriage not wrong, younger people would much rather safe the cost of weddings and divorces. However, many couples see cohabitation as simply a step towards marriage and could be referred to as the new form of ‘engagement’, regardless the stigma surround cohabiting has decreased drastically and has become more accepted among the younger generations. Once it was thrown upon and considered to bring your entire family shame mainly, due to the influence of religion; But, traditional religion no longer has the power it once had. Cohabiting couples weren’t as happy and content according to a report by the Institute for the Study of Civil Society (Morgan 2000) and were more likely to be unfaithful and stressed. However, cohabiting couple may include those who disagree with marriage or people who plan to get married in the near future, it is problematic to generalise (Kiernan, 2007). British Social Attitude Surveys specifies that majority of people, still aspire to be married one-day, whether they were single, divorced or cohabiting. In 1967, homosexuality was no longer considered a criminal act; In 2004, The Civil Partnerships Acts allowed same sex couples the same rights as married couples in relation to property, inheritance and pensions. This led to the rise of a different kind of family, it has become more common for people of the same sex relationship to adopt, use IVF or a surrogate. 

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