Crime and criminality have been paired with man since his flop.
Crime is the direct opposite of development. Crime interrupts the development
of a country. It leaves a negative social and economic Impact. It is very hard
to classify crimes in general into distinct groups. But most common crime in
today’s life is cybercrime. Cybercrime is judged as crimes committed on the
internet using the computer as either a tool or a targeted victim. All
cybercrimes involve both the computer and the person behind it as victims. The
term ‘cyber crime’ is a misnomer. The thought of cyber crime is not completely
different from the idea of conventional crime. Both include conduct of
omission, which break the rules of law. Before evaluating the concept of cyber
crime it is badly needed to have concept of conventional crime. 1
Cyber Crime :
Cyber crime is
the latest and perhaps the most complex problem in the cyber world. A
generalized definition of cyber crime may be “unlawful acts wherein the
computer is either a tool or target or both”. A cyber
attack is an attack initiated from a computer against a website, computer
system or individual computer. The computer may be used as a tool in the
following kinds of activity financial crimes, sale of illegal articles, pornography,
cyber defamation, cyber stalking. The computer may however be target for
unlawful acts in the following cases- unauthorized access to computer/ computer
system/ computer networks, theft of information contained in the electronic
form, e-mail bombing, data loot, logic bombs, internet time thefts, web
jacking, theft of computer system, physically damaging the computer system.1
and cyber security are issues that can hardly be separated in an interconnected
environment. The fact that the 2010 UN General Assembly resolution on cyber
security addresses cybercrime as one major challenge. Cyber security plays an
important role in the ongoing development of information technology. The legal,
technical and institutional challenges posed by the issue of cyber security are
global and far-reaching, and can only be addressed through a coherent strategy
taking into account the role of different stakeholders and existing initiatives,
within a framework of international cooperation. 4
Criminals of Cyber Crime :
The cyber criminals may be categorized in
the following category.
Children and adolescents between the age group of 10
– 18 years involves with cyber crime due to the inquisitiveness to know and
explore the things.
Organised hackers are mostly
organised together to fulfil certain objective.
Professional hacker’s work is motivated by the colour
of money. These are mostly employed to hack the site to get valuable
Discontented employees normally hack
the system of their employee deu to dissatisfiction with their employer.
is known that any mental or physical torture occurred via internet considered
as cyber crime, so it is clear that a tool that directly or indirectly involve
with crime is considered as a crime tool. It may be mobile phone or any device.
But mostly these criminals uses computer as a crime tool. And maximum time
computer uses as a target also.
for Cyber Crime :
“The Concept of Law” has said ‘human are
in risk so rule of law is required to protect them’.Applying this to the
cyberspace we may say that computers are vulnerable so rule of law is required
to protect cyber crime. The reasons for the vulnerability of computers may be
said to be:
Capacity to store data in comparatively small space: The computer
has unique characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This affords
to remove or derive information either through physical or virtual medium makes
it much easier.
Easy to access: The problem encountered in guarding a computer
system from unauthorised access is that there is every possibility of breach
not due to human error but
due to the complex technology. By
secretly implanted logic bomb, key loggers that can steal access codes, advanced
voice recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool biometric systems and bypass
firewalls can be utilized to get past many a security system.
Complex: The computers work on operating systems
and these operating systems in turn are composed of millions of codes. Human
mind is fallible and it is not possible that there might not be a lapse at any
stage. The cyber criminals take advantage of these lacunas and penetrate into
the computer system.
Negligence: Negligence is very closely connected
with human conduct. It is therefore very probable that while protecting the
computer system there might be any negligence, which in turn provides a cyber
criminal to gain access and control over the computer system.
Loss of evidence: Loss of evidence is a very common
& obvious problem as all the data are routinely destroyed. Further
collection of data outside the territorial extent
paralyses this system of crime investigation.
Blastings due to Cyber
Unauthorized access to computer systems or Hacking:
kind of crime is known as hacking.
Today’s Criminals are going to access other’s computer to take data or whatever
Theft of information contained in electronic form: Information
stored in computer hard disks, removable storage media and theft may be either
by appropriating the data physically or by tampering them through the virtual
Email bombing: This kind of activity refers to
sending large numbers of mail to the victim. By this when a valuable e-mail
need to find the mail servers my be
Data diddling: This kind of an attack involves altering
raw data just before a computer processes it and then changing it back after
the processing is completed.
Salami attacks: This kind of crime is normally purpose
of committing financial crimes. An important feature of this type of crime is
that the alteration is so small that it would normally go unnoticed. For
example only 10 cents are deducted from each account and store it in a
Denial of Service attack: The computer of
the victim which cause it to Crash by this type of crime. Distributed Denial of
Service attack is also a type of denial of service attack.
Virus attacks: It
can be defined as viruses are programs that fix themselves to a computer
or a file and then move themselves to other files and to other computers on a network.
They usually affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it.
For today’s life it is very common and well-known problem.
Logic bombs: These are event dependent programs. This
implies that these programs are created to do something only when a certain
event occurs even some viruses may be termed logic bombs.
Trojan attacks: This means an unauthorized programme,
which passively gains control over another’s system by representing itself as
an authorised programme.
Internet time thefts: Normally in these kinds of
thefts the Internet surfing hours of the victim are used up by another person.
This is done by gaining access to the login ID and
password. It is another well-known and familiar crime.
Web jacking: This term is derived from the term hi
jacking. In these kinds of offences the hacker gains access and control over
the web site of another. He may even mutilate or changethe information on the
site. This may be done for fulfilling political objectives or for money.
Recently the site of Ministry of Information Technology was hacked by the Pakistani hackers.1
to prevent or reduce the risk of cyber attacks :
Save the company’s database on a different web
Applying the latest security
Protecting all passwords.
Using read-only views of
documents and materials when possible.
Maintaining strict input
Developing network security
Monitoring activities and
procedures of third-party contractors with access to the computer system
Performing network scans to
assess activity on the network.
a Cyber Incident Response Plan
Procedures to Preserve Evidence
The board of directors, CEO, CFO and other senior management must
support the CCO in preventing cyber attacks. The CCO should create and maintain
relationships with federal, state and local law enforcement .
Every company should develop
a written cyber incident response plan) that identifies cyber attack scenarios contains
Response team., Reporting, Initial
response, Investigation, Recovery and follow-up, Public relations,Law
Develop the cyber incident
Identify and classify cyber
Determine the tools and
technology used to detect and prevent attacks.
Secure the company’s
Develop a checklist for
handling initial investigations of cyber attacks.
Conduct any investigations
within the determined scope.
take Initial response to a cyber attack
a cyber attack
announcements and public relations after a cyber attack
enforcement investigations of cyber attacks
Enforcement Agencies that Investigate Internet Crime
the hackers 37
The cyber crime as a whole
refers to Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of
individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the
victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly,
using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails,
notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS). A computer can be a
source of evidence. Even when a computer is not directly used for criminal
purposes, may contain records of value to criminal investigators. so the
network must be secure as no one can access the information of the computer.