Ideally, citizenship. These were the responsibilities and

Ideally,
every single people in the United States – or even throughout the world – have the
rights of citizenship.  These were the responsibilities and
privileges of an individual person with loyalty to a nation or state who was
authorized when a person was born in the United States or became a naturalized
United States citizens.
However, in reality, not all people in the United States were benefited with
the rights of citizenship because the minorities were deprived from it by their
viewed superior.  Throughout American history, people were
deprived from their rights due to their race, sex, age, and financial income. 
For example, women were deprived from their rights and liberties by
white men.  There were perceived as an inferior to men
and were expected to serve and worship the male population. 
Fortunately, throughout the history of United States, several women put
their grave efforts to correct these oppressions and finally achieve the rights
of citizenship that they deserved since the very beginning. However, the rise of conservatism
in the United States sparked different options of what women’s rights need to
be,
rejecting the
principles and objectives of conventions and movements that sought and demanded
the equality for women.

One of the first efforts for the
rights of women which were documented in 1776 were conveyed by Abigail Adams in
her letters to her husband: James Adams. 
Abigail Adams yearned that James Adams and the other white men to “Remember
the Ladies, and be more generous and favorable to them” (3). 
Abigail Adams was worried about the idea of the limitless power that the
white males enjoyed, because she deemed that all men were innately tyrants
whenever they could or whenever they want to be. 
Abigail Adams reminded her husband to remember the women for their voice
concerning their political sentiments and viewpoints. 
Abigail Adams also suspected that the liberties and rights for everyone
were not equally strong juxtaposed to the people, such as white men, who had
been familiarized to oppress and deprive the rights of citizenship of other
people (2).  This manifestly suggested that women were
starting to perceived their lack of privileges and how men, who enjoyed
limitless power, continued to oppressed them from their right of citizenship. 

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Furthermore, Abigail also cautioned
her husband that if there would be no care and attention paid to the women,
then the women were firmed to inaugurate a rebellion and the existing laws – which
they have no representation or voice – cannot stop them (3). 
Abigail Adam’s disputes in her letters to James Adams about her concerns
to remember the women failed yet her statements were recognized and celebrated
in the history of the United States since they withstood the rule of men to
exploit their rights of citizenship and women urged for their civil equality.

            These sentiments rapidly
exponentially grew when some of the women who were part in the endeavors to
abolish slavery in the United States began to realized parallels between the oppression
of the enslaved people and their own situations as Americans who were denied
the same liberties and rights, which the white male Americans unlimitedly
enjoyed. 
Therefore, a group of activists gathered at Seneca Falls, New York in
1848 for a deliberation concerning women’s rights. 
This event was popularly known as the Women’s rights Convention (“Declaration of Sentiments” 245).  One of the suffragist, Elizabeth Cady
Stanton, drafted the Seneca Fall Declaration,” which was signed by sixty-eight
women and thirty-two men.  The document addressed that “all men and
women are created equal” (245).  This declaration
meant that both men and women were provided with the same inalienable rights by
their Creator, that both men and women can equally enjoy life, liberty, and
pursuit of happiness, and that the rights of men and women were secured and
protected equally by the instituted government (“Declaration of Sentiments”
245). 

Furthermore, if the government befalls
overpowered and destructive, then the people – who will be negatively affected
by it – hold the rights to reject in submitting with the government and to demand
in instituting a new government that aligns from the underlying basic of
principles which would positively affect their safety and happiness (“Declaration
of Sentiments” 245).  In addition, the document recognized the intrusions
and injuries that men caused towards women. 

Two of the listed oppressions were “men
have never permitted women to exercise their inalienable rights to the
elective franchise and men have compelled her to laws, in the formation of
which she had no voice” (246).  These
oppressions manifestly countered the idea that all men and women since men were
allowed to vote and women were denied their rights to vote.    

            In 1851, an African American woman named
Sojourner Truth, delivered her most famous speech entitled “Ain’t I a Women” at
a Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio (256). 
Truth’s speech was short and simple yet it was a powerful reprimand to
many anti-feminist arguments in that convention. She invoked Christians beliefs to
contradict the ministers’ anti-feminist arguments (Sojourner Truth 257). For example, the ministers argued
that it was Eve – who was a woman – was the first person to sin; however, truth
lectured them that “if the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn
the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn
it back, and get it right side up again” (257). 
This emphasized that power that women can do if only they were allowed
to do it.

Furthermore, Sojourner Truth also
explored the idea of women’s rights should also be equally applied to African
American women (256).  This effort made by Sojourner truth clearly emphasized
that more women were doing their very best to make a constitutional change in
the United States.

However, the rise of conservatism
in the United States sparked different options of what women’s rights need to
be. 
For example, conservatives like Phyllis Schlafly, were disturbed about the
movements striving equality for women and viewed these movements as a
provocation to traditional beliefs and values (312).  In addition, conservatives saw that the women’s
rights efforts were misguided efforts to change the means that God entrusted
and planned the world to be (Schlafly). 

Additionally, in Phyllis Schlafly’s
1972 article entitled “What’s Wrong with ‘Equal Rights’ for Women,” attacked
the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) and argued that the ERA would jeopardize women’s
Social Security benefits, force women into the military, and mitigates the
prevailing protections under divorce and marriage laws for women (313). 
Furthermore, Schlafly suggested that the “Judeo-Christian civilization has
developed the law and custom” which provided honor to the God-given maternal
role that women can engage in (312). Therefore, she argued that women have
the most privileges and the most rights with the fewest duties compared to all
the social classes of people in the world.

Equality between men and women is
an idea that the United States constantly imagined and desired for. 
Yet for a long time and throughout the American history, women a
constantly looking up a glass ceiling and men are above them. 
Women can see that they can achieve those rights and liberties above the
glass ceilings; however, they feel that they will always be trapped as being
the inferior to men.  On the other hand, it is possible that what
women are seeking today could be a grave insult to traditional beliefs and
values. 
A lot of women would perceive that today’s movements for women already
cross the borderline of their beliefs and values, which could make them wonder
if they should continue to support their own similar sex or not at all.  

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