Hydraulic water extracted for daily usage and

Hydraulic Fracturing


advent of the industrial revolution triggered the use of gas and petroleum
products throughout the globe, especially the United States. Oil and gas appear
to be the most powerful and cheap sources of energy, therefore, extracting oil
and gas and finding new ways to improve production is a keen interest of oil
and gas production companies. Hydraulic Fracturing is a process through which
oil and gas are extracted from the earth by injecting pressurized liquid. This
liquid contains toxic chemicals which on one hand makes extraction of fuel
quite easy but simultaneously they appear to be a big hazard for humans,
animals and the environment. Also, the frequent extraction of fuel for extended
periods depletes precious natural resources.

proponents of sustainable development claim that sustainable development is the
key to protecting the environment.  Sometimes though idealistic because resource
depletion takes centuries to recover, efforts should be possessed to save the environment
and entails economic gains but Hydraulic fracturing may become an obstacle in
way of achieving sustainable development. Therefore, this phenomenon is quite
interesting while it does have many impacts on social economic and
environmental aspects of society not only in present but in future also.
Therefore, impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on various aspects of society will
be discussed in this study.



Fracturing: The Dilemma of Modern America

2.1  Hydraulic Fracturing Impact on

United States is the largest producer of Gas in the world, and the largest user
of petroleum and Natural gas. The primary energy consumption of country based on
carbon producing energy sources which leads to increase carbon emission in the
environment. These emissions of gasses and thirst to acquire more and more
energy resources led the world into a vicious cycle of global warming and its
impacts (Patel et al. 2014).

as we know is a process through which toxic pressurize water is injected in
rocks, this water includes acids to fracture rocks, these toxins mixed in water
extracted for daily usage and waste which eventually make their way to the sea
also affects marine life.  Besides life
threatening properties of fracturing, increase in fuel production will deplete
the natural resources. Just in two centuries of industrial revolution and
humans deplete the ozone layer and many scare resources that may take centuries
to regain their place. The hydroelectric, wind, geothermal and biomass energy are
considered to be environment-friendly ways of achieving energy but the
production of oil and gas through fracturing increased a lot all over the
world. Following table informs about the production of Shale gas all around the

Table 2.1 Production
of Shale Gas

(linley 2011)

Gas refers to phenomena where gas is extracted from breaking of shales or
rocks, which is getting popular all around the world (Linley, 2011). This
massive extraction is quite alarming because it is just not hazardous for
environment but effect social and cultural aspects of society.

2.2  Social and Cultural impact of
Hydraulic fracturing

Fracturing can affect social and cultural aspects of life. The production of
shale gas as mentioned in table 2.1, which is among highest in the United
States which means gas utilize in production and domestic use. When this
precious natural resource is available freely to masses, the production will
increase which provoke the consumerism, which means people, will purchase
things for the sake of purchasing. Increased consumerism rewards society with urbanization
that in long run affects cultural identity of people. Also, fracturing will
generate unhealthy society, where organic foods come in piles of unhygienic
plastic wrap. Where consumerism isolates human in a name of social media.

(Brandt et al, 2014) believes the increase in employment opportunities due to
increased production helps people to earn a livelihood and live a better life. Similarly,
due to new technology the production increased and cost of production decreased
which decreases the inflation and save the money of the masses.

2.3  Economic Gains of Hydraulic

basic purpose of hydraulic fracturing is to extract more gas and oil to fulfill
the demand of the economy. Since the process made extraction quite easy, this
will have several impacts on the economy. At first, it will increase the
production of goods and services in the market because fuel is available at
comparatively low prices because fuel is easily available. Secondly, it will
increase the employment level in the economy (Chen et al. 2014). With an
increase of oil production, there are many jobs opportunities open in a market,
and resolve major macroeconomic problems. Figure 2.2 shows the employment
opportunities created by oil production in North Dakota. Results show that with
the increase of production employment increases as well.

Source: (Brandt et al, 2014)

might be concern that profits from exports can decrease because production will
be increase due to fracturing but oil prices are decided internationally, there
is rarely a likeability this may happen therefore economically fracturing is
good and it helps to boost the economy


study was an attempt to address potential impact of fracturing in the economy. The
study shows that fracturing can affect society harshly when it comes to public
health, marine life due to pollution its production and usage create. However,
it will give benefit economically, it can resolve several macroeconomic problems