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Hue Anh NguyenBIOL 141 01January 28th, 2018Fred SangerFrederick Sanger ( also known as Fred Sanger) is one of the greatest and the most influential British biochemist in history who is a pioneer in contributing to the world’s understanding about the structure of the protein, especially that of  insulin and DNA sequence. He was born on August 13th 1918 at Rendcombe, a small beautiful village in England. During his childhood, Sanger was soon interested in biology and how nature and science happened around the world. Later, he went to Cambridge University to pursue his studying which is about biology, not in medical field like his dad. In his career, he is one of only four people in the world to have won 2 Nobel Prizes – the prestigious prize for any scientists as a adward for their works – and the only person who won 2 Nobel prizes in chemistry. He won his first prize in 1958 for his work on the structure of protein, which is made up of chains of amino acids. By discovering the structure of protein, he gave the scientific world a key to open the door of understanding about how our bodies are made and work. Without his work, many of treatments for such diseases as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer and cystic fibrosis would not have been possible to be found. He did his great job not only in  figuring out the structure of the protein in general, but also determining the structure of one important protein, insulin, a hormone in the body that maintains the amount of glucose in our bloodstream. In the beginning of 1940s, Fred studied what insulin is made of, and he found out that insulin is made up of 2 types of chains, a phenylalanine chain and a glycine chain. He was able to sequence the amino acid of each chain  by using acids to break  the molecule into smaller parts which were separated by one another with the help of partition chromatography and the new technique of paper chromatography. He also developed a method to read the amino acid sequence of insulin and finally he identified that these two amino acid chain are linked together by disulphide bonds.The next chapter of his incredible discovery career started from 1962 when he was on the Medical Research Council (MRC) at Cambridge University and worked with those researchers such as Francis Crick, John Kendrew, Aaron Klug who were all working on DNA- related problems. Taking inspiration from others, Sanger soon moved  his interest from studying the sequence of protein to studying the sequence of DNA, which provides scientists a tool to read how the sequences of the components of DNA, nucleotides, are ordered and to read the information contained in the DNA of any organism including humans. With this discovery, he helped analyze  how DNA functions and map the human genomes. By being able to read the genome, we can understand how different people have different diseases. Moreover, this study opens the means of discovering and identifying diseases and illnesses and helps scientists find the treatments to defeat those diseases and to protect our health. Although his contemporaries who worked out the structure of DNA’s double helix in the early 1950s  and discovered that it held a linear code of base pair, Sanger found another way to read the DNA sequence. He began his study by sequencing RNA first because of its small size. He used radioactive method for sequencing RNA, and in 1967, the first RNA was fully sequenced. This success led him to continue his study with DNA. .He developed techniques to clone the DNA of the genes under investigation and then add chemicals to break the DNA into short pieces.  Eventually, he came up with a new method to sequence a single stranded DNA sequence for a bacteria virus by using arcylamide-gel based on “read-off”method. By 1977, Sanger and his group members had obtained most of the DNA sequence  of bacteriophage X174 which is the first complete genome to be sequenced, consists of 5357 nucleotides. Sanger received his Second Nobel Prize in 1980, sharing it with Walter Gilbert and Paul Berg for their amazing contribution in determining  the amino acid  sequences of DNA information.  Later, before his retirement, he made his last contribution to scientific field by sequencing human and bovine mitochondrial DNA. Fred Sanger contributed many useful understanding for human and scientist in the way of providing how our bodies are made of and its function. He died on 19th November, 2013 at the age of 95 with the admiration and respect of everybody for his contributions and devotion to the scientific world.

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