Gender be changed. Sex is defined as

Gender refers to the socially constructed characteristics of women and men; such as norms, roles and relationships of and between groups of women and men. (World Health Organisation, 2017) It varies from society to society and can be changed. Sex is defined as the binary characteristic that is assigned at birth, i.e. male or female, and relates to body’s physical properties; specifically, the sex organs. (World Health Organisation. 2017)Morbidity refers to the unhealthy state of an individual, while mortality refers to the state of being mortal. (Sociology.org.uk, 2000) A morbidity rate looks at the incidence of a disease across a population and/or geographic location during a single year and the mortality rate is the rate of death in a population. (World Health Organisation, 2017) The two are often used together to calculate the prevalence of a disease. e.g., measles and how likely that disease is to be deadly. (World Health Organisation, 2017)Mental health problems affect both men and women, but not in equal measure. (Mental Health Foundation, 2018) In England, women are more likely than men to have a common mental health problems and are almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with anxiety disorders. (Mental Health Foundation, 2018) in 2013, 6,233 suicides were recorded in the UK for people aged 15 and older. Of these, 78% were male and 22% were female. (Office of National Statistics, 2015) women are approximately 75% more likely than men to report having recently suffered from depression, and around 60% more likely to report an anxiety disorder. (World Health Organisation, 2017) Whereas, men are more likely to report substance misuse disorders around two and a half times more frequently than women. (World Health Organisation, 2017)Depression is more common in women than men. 1 in 4 women will require treatment for depression at some time, compared to 1 in 10 men. (National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2003) The reasons for this are unclear, but are thought to be due to both social and biological factors. (National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2003) It has also been suggested that depression in men may have been under diagnosed because they present to their GP with different symptoms, for example a range of physical, stress related symptoms.  (National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2003)Men are more likely than women to have an alcohol or drug problem. 67% of British people who consume alcohol at hazardous levels, and 80% of those dependent on alcohol are male. (The Office for National Statistics, 2015) Almost three quarters of people dependent on cannabis and 69% of those dependent on other illegal drugs are male. (The Office for National Statistics, 2015)Life expectancy, in UK, at birth has increased by 13.1 weeks per year on average since 1980–1982 for males and 9.5 weeks per year on average for females in the UK. (Office of National Statistics, 2015) In 2013–2015 a man in the UK aged 65 had an average further 18.5 years of life remaining and a woman 20.9 years. (Office of National Statistics, 2015) The most common age at death in the UK for men was 85 and for women was 89. (Office of National Statistics, 2015)Differences in what is expected of men and women and how they are taught to behave also contribute to variation in health-related behaviours. (Population Reference Bureau, 2007) For example, many cultures encourage or condone men’s heavy drinking, but discourage it in women. Also, in many cultures, women are not expected to work outside the home in the cash economy while men are expected to be part of the labour force. Because women are less likely to be part of the work force than men, they suffer less from the ravages of work. As a result, their health deteriorates less quickly. (Population Reference Bureau, 2007)Low-paid or manual work takes a toll in terms of health. People in the bottom income group tend to have both worse health and more rapidly deteriorating health while they are working. (Population Reference Bureau, 2007) Yet, while manual workers are typically less healthy on average, the differences among male and female workers in this occupational group are much smaller than differences across occupations. (Population Reference Bureau, 2007)As conceived by Talcott Parsons (1951), the functionalist perspective emphasizes that good health and effective medical care are essential for a society’s ability to function. (Buckser.A, 2000) Ill health impairs the ability to perform the roles in society, and if too many people are unhealthy, society’s functioning and stability suffers. (Parson.T, 1951) Poor medical care is likewise dysfunctional for society, as people who are ill face greater difficulty in becoming healthy and people who are healthy are more likely to become ill. (Parson.T, 1951)The conflict approach emphasizes inequality in the quality of health and of health-care delivery (Weitz, 2013). Society’s inequities along social class, race and ethnicity, and gender lines are reproduced in health care. (Weitz.R, 2013) People from disadvantaged social backgrounds are more likely to become ill, and once they do become ill, inadequate health care makes it more difficult for them to become well. (Weitz.R, 2013) The conflict approach also critiques efforts by physicians over the decades to control the practice of medicine and to define various social problems as medical ones. (Weitz.R, 2013) Physicians’ motivation for doing so has been both good and bad. On the good side, they have believed they are the most qualified professionals to diagnose problems and to treat people who have these problems. (Weitz.R, 2013) On the negative side, they have also recognized that their financial status will improve if they succeed in characterizing social problems as medical problems and in monopolizing the treatment of these problems. (Weitz.R, 2013)

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