Cellulose due to its high content of

Cellulose ethers are high molecular
weight compounds produces by replacing the hydrogen atoms of hydroxyl groups in
the anhydroglucose units of cellulose
with alkyl or substituted alkyl groups. The commercially important properties
of cellulose ethers are determined by their molecular weights, chemical
structure and distribution of the substituent groups, the degree of substitution and a molar substitution. These properties generally contain
solubility, viscosity in solution, surface activity, thermoplastic film
characteristics and stability against biodegradation, heat, hydrolysis and oxidation. The viscosity of cellulose ether solutions is
directly associated with their molecular
weights. The properties of cellulose ethers are controlled by the degree of polymerization (DP) and degree of substitution (DS). Examples of mostly used
cellulose ethers are Methylcellulose
(MC), Ethylcellulose (EC), Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC),
carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) 9.

Sodium-carboxymethylcellulose
(NaCMC) is the most widely used ether, prepared by the reaction of chloroacetic
acid and cellulose, water-soluble, large
DS range (usually 0.7-1.2), water solubility increases with DS, used in milk
products, dressings, jellies, syrups (termed cellulose gum) 10.

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Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Cellulose is a polymer with an
extremely high internal cohesive energy, due to its high content of hydroxyls functions. Consequently, it does not
dissolve readily either in common organic solvents
or in water. The exploitation of the OH-function of cellulose yielded one of
the first semi-synthetic polymers
(cellulose acetates, nitrates, etc.). Sodium carboxymethylcellulose
is also a cellulose derivative, produced by the etherification of the hydroxyl group of cellulose macromolecules by monochloroacetic acid (MCA). Sodium carboxymethylcellulose synthesized for the
first time in 1920, and it is the most used cellulose derivative 11.

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