As justification for strategic communication according to

As previously mentioned,
organizational communication often describes how organizations compete in the
marketplace to fulfill its mission. In
today’s increasingly complex world, organizations vie for the attention,
admiration, affinity, alignment and allegiance of constituents of all sorts of
customers, employees, investors and donors, government officials, special
interest group leaders, and the public at large (Hallahan, K., Holtzhausen, D.,
Ruler, V. B., Vercic, D., Sriramesh, K., 2007, p. 4). While their particular activities
can be conceptualized in various ways, organizations need to devise the
effective instrument in which it can communicate purposefully to advance its
goals.  This effective instrument
according to Hallahan et al. (2007) is “a strategic communication”. Strategic
communication differs from integrated communication because its focus on how the
organization communicates across organizational endeavors. Hence, the emphasis
is on the strategic application of communication as well as how an organization
functions as a social actor to advance its mission. The justification for
strategic communication according to Hallahan et al. (2007) is that strategic
communication makes sense as a merging framework to analyze communication by
organizations. For instance, one of the advantages of strategic communication
is that organizations use an expanding variety of methods to influence the
behaviors of their constituencies – what people know, how people feel, and the
ways people act relative to the organization (Hallahan et al. 2007, p. 10).

More importantly, communication strategy includes examining how an organization
presents itself in society as a social actor in the creation of public culture
and in the discussion of public issues. What is central to the strategic
communication is the power of causing an effect in indirect and intangible.

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According to Cutlip, Center, & Brooms, 1995) “Organizations or individuals
who want to alter the behavior of others have four tools at their disposal:
physical force, patronage, purchase, or persuasion”. The later includes
strategic communication since the main idea of communication is to encourage
the acceptance of ideas. Indeed, with the proliferation of media and the
disharmony of massages, they generate, it has become increasingly important for
social actors and organizations to be deliberate and thoughtful in their
communication to be heard (Habermas, 1979). This is especially true, as strategic
organizational communication has become increasingly international and virtual
in today’s postmodern world. It is increasingly impossible to escape
communicating across national, cultural and linguistic borders without having a
strategic communication (Hallahan et al. (2007, p. 27).

 

Communication
Models

 

A term model is a generalized description of a particular phenomenon. The
models of communication are conceptual models used to deconstruct and explain
the human communication process. So far, two major communication models are
leading discussions within professional and academic circles. Both are
applicable in terms of strategic communication (Hallahan et al. 2007, p. 20).

The first, the basic and simple form of the model of communication is linear. The
linear model was originally developed in the 1940s a part of a now largely
forgotten research project in the United States, which investigated the ways
that technical information was communicated through telecommunication system
(Mattelart and Mattelart 1998, Shannon and Weaver 1955). Even though the
original model was not developed for the purpose of human communication,
however, it remained central today as the sources of several important
communication concepts, because it has been widely adopted by communication
teachers and practitioners around the world (Maier et al. 2005). Shannon and
Weaver first developed the simple linear model, which describes a simple
one-way communication process that involves two individuals which is a sender,
and a receiver connected via a conventional telephone landline. The main goal
of Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver was to ensure the maximum efficiency of any
communication process in general, and telephone cables and radio waves in
particular. The result proved valuable and led to the discovery of various
communication channels. As can be seen, the model figure 1.1 consists of a
sender or information source who constructs a message and attempts to deliver
to somebody else in an organization in forms of spoken, written, image or
sound. The transmitter converts the message into a signal and send it via the communication
channel to the receiver. The choice of words here is normally based on that
person’s chosen language and is usually influenced by many factors, such as
cultural background, level of education and emotional state (Richard et al.,
2013, p. 5). The receiver also called inverse transmitter then translate or
convert the signals back into a message and hand it to over to the destination.

The destination is the final stage where the person to which the transmitted
message sent to is placed. Here again, the transmitted message is decoded and
understood by the brain of the person at receiving end, depending on the
factors including the receiver’s language, cultural background, level of
education and emotional state (Richard et al. (2013, p. 5). Once the conversation
process is complete, the message is considered as having been received and the
process retreats itself with the positions of sender and receiver reversed.

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