2.6 2.2. Table 2.2: Breakdown factors of

2.6 Identify Causes of Delay

For the purpose of this research, the causes of delay that been
established by Chan and Kumarasamy (1997); odeh and Battaineh
(2002); Sambasivam and Soon  (2006); Long et al. (2008) are used. Following are the
classification, the sources of delays that arise from each of these factor categories were identified from literature. All of these will be used in designing the questionnaire as to achieve the objectives of this research.

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2.6.1 Client-related factors

Several studies identified the factors of client related
delays. Chan and Kumarasamy (1997) in their study have listed the client
characteristic, project financing, client variation and interim payment
to contractor. Sambasivam and Soon (2006) identified
the factor of interference, slow decision making and unrealistic contract duration. Aibinu and odeyinka (2006) have added the factors of late contract award by client.
Based on the
literature review, there are eight factors of client related
delays were identified as shown in Table 2.2.

 

 

Table 2.2: Breakdown factors of client related delays

Group

Factors that cause delays

 
 
             
 
 
Client
related delay
 

1.Slow payment of completed works
 
2.  Unrealistic contract duration
 
3.  Change order
 
4.  Financial difficulties
 
5.  Uncooperative client
 
6.  Client interference
 
7.  Slow decision making
 

 

 

2.6.2 Consultant-related factors

Aibinu and odeyinka (2006)
separated the consultant related factors into each design team participant: architect, structural engineer,
services engineer and quantity surveyor. They added the factors of late valuation work, late preparation of interim valuation, inadequate supervision, late issuance of instruction and delay work approval. Therefore, researcher concludes the consultantrelated factors as in Table 2.3.

 

Table
2.3: Breakdown factors of consultant related
delays

 

Group

Factors that cause delays

 
 
 
 
 
             
 
Consultant related delay
 
 

1.Defects in design
 
2.  Changes in drawings and specification
 
3.  Mistake in design
 
4.  Incomplete document/drawing
 
5.  Slow inspection of completed works
 
6.  Inadequate supervision to contractor
 
7.  Late preparation of interim valuation
 
8.  Late valuation work Late issue of instruction
 
9.  Delay of work approval

 

 

2.6.3 Contractor-related factors

Numerous researchers were
identified the factors of contractor related delays as the main contributor to the causes of construction project delays. Delay
caused by contractors? attributes most often were classified into five main items: failure to evaluate the site or design, management problem, inadequate resources, poor workmanship and subcontractor failures (Abdul-Rahman H. et
al., 2001).

 

odeh and Battaineh (2002) identified the factors of inadequate contractor experience, inappropriate construction methods, poor site management and
supervision and unreliable subcontractor as contributors to causes of delays. Aibinu and odeyinka (2006) elaborated this group cause into contractor financial difficulties, inadequate site supervision and planning and
schedule problem.

Hence, the factors were finally categorized as shown in Table 2.4.

 

                 Table 2.4: Breakdown factors of contractor related delays Contractor related

Group

Factors that cause delays

 
 
 
 
 
Contractor related delay
 

1.Poor site management/coordination on site
 
2.               
Poor site
management/supervision
 
3.               
Unsuitable
construction method
 
4.               
Inadequate
experience
 
5.               
Construction mistakes Poor subcontractor performance 
 
6.Defective of works Improper planning

2.6.4 Materials-related factors

For this group cause, Chan and Sambasivam (1997) established the root causes such as shortages, materials
changes, delay in procurement and proportion of off-site prefabrication. other causes of delay are attributed to material-related factors include: poor quality, damages materials, late delivery and shortage (Abd. Majid,
1997; Sambasivam and Soon, 2006). Based on the previous literature review, researcher decides to establish six factors of material-related
delays as shown in Table 2.5.

 

Table 2.5: Breakdown factors of labour-related delays

 

 

Group

Factors that cause delays

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Materials related delay

 
1.Shortage of materials
 
2.                 
Material
fabrication delay
 
3.                 
Slow delivery of ordered materials
 
4.                 
Noncompliance of material to specification
 
5.                 
Unforeseen material
damages
 
6.                 
Material
procurement
problem
 
 

 

2.6.5 Labour-related factors

Several studies identified the factors of labour related delay.
Sambasivam and Soon (2006) in their study combined the labour factors and equipment related factor. They identified the
factors of labour supply, low productivity, equipment
availability and equipment failure. Chan and Kumarasamy (1997) identified the
factors of low skill level and weak
motivation. Abd. Majid (1997)
identified the factors of strike, poor labour planning, slow mobilization, absenteeism and low morale. Based on the literature review, there are seven factors of labour related delays were
identified as shown in Table

2.6.

 

 

 Table 2.6: Breakdown factors of labour-related delays

 

Group

Factors that cause delays

 
 
 
 
 
 
Labour related
delay

 
1.Labour injuries/accident
in site
 
2.  Low productivity disputes
and strikes
 
3.  Weak motivation
 
4.  Unskilled labour
 
5.  Labour disputes and strikes
 
6.  Shortage of manpower
 
7.  Absenteeism

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