1. men? The first reason de Beauvoir

1.    
Name
two central figures of the Harlem Renaissance. What did each person achieve?

One of the central figures of the
Harlem Renaissance was Zora Neale Hurston. She was a novelist, folklorist,
writer and anthropologist. She created some of the most acclaimed works of
fiction that included strong female characters in early twentieth century. “Their
Eyes Were Watching God” was one of her most famous works of fiction. Although
Hurston struggled all her life financially and to get recognition for her work,
she was one of the first African-American woman to bring African-American
literature in the spotlight. She also influenced writers like Alice Walker and
Ralph Ellison etc.

Langston Hughes was also one of the
primary contributors to the Harlem Renaissance. He was an American novelist,
poet, and playwright. Hughes was the first African-American professional writer
to support himself. His poems and other literary works show his commitment to
African-American heritage. He published his poem “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”
and achieved critical acclaim and many literary awards.

2.    
What
reason(s) does Simone de Beauvoir give for women’s traditional subordination to
men?

The first reason de Beauvoir gives
is that women themselves accept their subordinate position when men define
women as “the Other”. Although Women call themselves women, they do not see
themselves genuinely as Subjects. The second reason she gives is that women
have not won anything. They have always had what men let them have, haven’t
taken anything but rather received. Women also lack unity which prevents them
from rising up together and demanding anything. They live with their fathers
and then husbands and identify themselves with them and not with other women.

She suggests that the division of the sexes is biological and not something
that happened in history. The third reason she gives is that women do not have
the same legal status as men. Even as everything is changing, men still have
better jobs and higher chances of succeeding when compared to women. If women
refuse to be the other, it means giving up all the advantages they have because
of the connection with the superior sex. Hence, women don’t claim to be
subjects as they derive satisfaction from being other rather than severing the
necessary connection to the man.

3.    
How
did Malcolm X’s position and views on the status of blacks differ from those of
Martin Luther King? Find a work of art in the Chapter 36 textbook and explain
why you think it might correspond to the ideas of Malcolm X.

Malcolm X advocated for
African-American independence during the civil rights movement. Martin Luther
King was a firm believer of nonviolent civil disobedience as a means to achieve
justice and prompted people to fight for equality through nonviolence, but
Malcolm X on the hand, believed that nonviolence wasn’t the only way and if it
is necessary to be violent in order to attain justice, it should be done. He
suggested that when it comes to the defense of America, whether it is in
Germany, Japan, etc. African-American soldiers use violence as asked by the
white man in defense, so the same applies in defending our own. He urged people
to defend their own in any way possible and if it is necessary to be violent,
then so be it. He believed that if violence is wrong in America, it is wrong
everywhere. Martin Luther King and Malcolm X grew up in very different
environments as King was raised in a stable family, whereas Malcolm’s father
was killed and he grew up in a foster home.

Betye Saar’ “The Liberation of Aunt
Jemima” is a trademark figure which consists of a domestic servant with a
rifle, a broom, and a pistol, with a mother figure and a white baby inside. This
artwork corresponds to the ideas of Malcolm X as it symbolizes the means he
advocated to achieve rights. Do whatever is necessary to achieve equality and
freedom.

4.    
What
central issue(s) was Betty Friedan arguing in her work The Feminist Mystique?

Betty Friedman in “The Feminist
Mystique” focuses on the women of the 20th century. Women were
unhappy and depressed because they were forced to be subordinate to men
physically, mentally, and financially. The post war culture fostered that a
woman’s fulfillment was at home as a housewife. Instead of encouraging women to
reach their intellectual potential and educate themselves, the average marriage
age dropped and fewer women were going to college. She argues that women should
achieve something in life rather than just making a choice to be a housewife.

5.    
Define
Deconstructionism and how it applies to analyses of philosophy, linguistics and
literary criticism.

Deconstructionism was a philosophical
movement that took place in the 1960s. French philosopher Jacques Derrida is
known for this movement and is primarily applied in the study of literature. It
questions the fundamental conceptual distinctions in philosophy through
examination and emphasizes that a text has no identification or fixed meaning because
it’s words and words have various different meanings. Deconstructionists
examined literary works and looked for hidden and different meanings and
criticized works based on the findings.

6.

What does Ellison’s protagonist (Reading 36.8) mean when he says that he is “an
invisible man”?

By saying “I am an invisible man”
Ellison’s protagonist means that people refuse to see him. They see everything
around him but fail to see and recognize him. It’s not something spooky or a
matter of bio-chemical accident, but rather people look with their inner eyes.