1. as IPng (internet protocol next generation)

1.   
ARP – Address
Resolution Protocol: The ARP functions below the network layer protocol
(layer 3 OSI model) as part of the
interface between the OSI network and OSI data link layer (layer 2 OSI model). ARP is used to map an IP network address to the
hardware addresses used by a data link protocol. This protocol is used by the
internet protocol RFC826, specifically IPv4. A computer user/host wishing to
gather a physical address broadcast a ARP request onto the network, then the
host on the network that contains that IP address replies with its physical
hardware address. Another functionality using ARP is called reverse ARP. In
this case where the host wants to discover its IP address sends or broadcast is
physicals address and RARP server replies with the host IP address.

a.   
https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/A/ARP.html

b.   
http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk/users/gorry/course/inet-pages/arp.html

c.   
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/Address-Resolution-Protocol-ARP

 

2.   
IPv6 –
Internet Protocol Version 6: IPv6 is also known as IPng (internet protocol next generation) used
in Layer 3 of the OSI model where logical address, path determination and route
packets exist. This is the newest
version of what we know as the internet protocol and it is used as a
replacement of IPv4 (Internet Protocol
Version 4). IPv6 was design for the future as the internet grows steadily
as in numbers of users and the amount of data traffic transmitted. The biggest
improvement over IPv4 is the IP addresses lengthen from 32 bits to 128 bits. It
provides features as allowing the host to send fragments packets but not
routers, requires IPsec support, does not include checksum in the header, and
offers simpler auto configuration of addresses.

a.   

TCP/IP Protocol Suite

b.   
http://searchenterprisewan.techtarget.com/definition/IPv6

c.   
https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/IPng.html

 

3.   
IPSec –
Internet Protocol Security: An open standard to help and ensure private and
secure communications over the internet. Secures communications via the use of
cryptography secure services and supports network data integrity, data confidentiality,
data origin authentication and replay protection. The IPSec is integrated at
the internet layer (OSI model layer 3) and
since it provides security for almost all protocols, there is no need configure
separate securities for each application that uses TCP/IP. Provides security
against attacks from unknown or untrusted computers, data theft, user
credential theft and helps to administrate controls of servers.

a.   
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc179879.aspx

b.   
https://www.lifewire.com/ipsec-in-ip-networking-818181

c.   
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc776369(v=ws.10).aspx

 

4.   
BGP – Border
Gateway Protocol: Approved in 2006, BGP-4, the existing version of BGP,
supports both IPv6 and classless interdomain routing (CIDR), which permits the
continued viability of IPv4. Use of the CIDR is a method to have additional
addresses within the network than with the current IP address assignment
scheme. BGP is currently in version 4 and is a protocol that manages how data
and packets are routed throughout the internet. It offers stability that
guarantees routers can quickly adapt and change connection if one internet path
breaks. BGP makes decisions based on network policies configured by a network
admin. Each BGP has a standard router table used to direct information in transit.
BGP is based on TCP/IP and uses the client’s server topology to communicate
routing information. BGP is a layer 4 protocol that is the transport layer on
the OSI model.

a.   
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/ios-nx-os-software/border-gateway-protocol-bgp/index.html

b.   
http://www.enterprisenetworkingplanet.com/netsp/article.php/3615896/Networking-101-Understanding-BGP-Routing.htm

c.   
http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/definition/BGP

 

 

5.   
UDP – User
Datagram Protocol: Is an alternative method of communication
protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). UDP in on layer 4 which is the
transport layer on the OSI model and is used primarily to stablish low latency
and the loss of tolerating connections between applications on the internet.
Both UDP and TCP run on the very top of the internet protocols. We know it and
referrer it as UDP/IP and TCP/IP, both protocols send small packets of data
known as datagrams. UDP have two services that provides a port number- to
distinguish different user request. Also, a checksum to verify the data has
arrived intact. We use UDP when we need an application to run with low latency
such as online video games, video chatting and voice transmissions.

a.   
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/UDP-User-Datagram-Protocol

b.   
https://www.lifewire.com/user-datagram-protocol-817976

c.   
https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSLTBW_2.3.0/com.ibm.zos.v2r3.halc001/ipcicint_protocol.htm

 

6.   
POP3 – Post
Office Protocol 3: POP3 is the most up-to-date version of
receiving e-mail. Is in the application layer of the OSI model, which is layer
7. Is a client and server protocol in which when receiving email is held by
your internet server. When checking your mail box, you are downloading the
e-mail using POP3. With POP3 is not possible to synchronize emails between
difference devices. it might not be a suitable used for companies that requires
client to be able to login from many different devices. A different protocol is
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). IMAP offers the user extra
capabilities for recollecting e-mail on the server and for organizing it in
folders on the server. IMAP can be assumed of as a remote file server. POP and IMAP
deal with the receiving of e-mail and are not to be confused with the Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail across the
Internet. You send e-mail with SMTP and a mail handler receives it on your
recipient’s behalf. Then the mail is read using POP or IMAP.

a.   
https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-pop-post-office-protocol-1171121

b.   
http://www.swestcom.com/support/q4.htm

c.   
http://searchexchange.techtarget.com/definition/POP3

 

7.   
HTTPS – Hyper
Text Transfer Protocol Secure: Is the secure version of HTTP, is the protocol
which the user is sending data between browser and the website you are
connected to. Strictly speaking is in the session layer of the OSI model, which
is layer 5. The ‘S’ at the end is for secure which means is that all
communication is encrypted and highly protected. This is what allows user to be
able to put their Credit card information and shop online more secure and less
vulnerable.

a.   
https://www.howtogeek.com/181767/htg-explains-what-is-https-and-why-should-i-care/

b.   
https://www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/OSI_Layers.asp

c.   
https://www.instantssl.com/ssl-certificate-products/https.html

 

8.   
DHCP – Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol: is a client and server protocol that
automatically provides an IP host with its IP address and other configurations
such as subnets mask and default gateway. Every device used on the network
specifically using TCP/IP must have a unique IP address to access it and use
its resources. Without a DHCP, new computers that are moved from one to another
subnet must be configured manually. Using DHCP this process is entirely
automated and managed with servers that contains a pool of IP addresses.  A DHCP enable client IP’s are automatically
assigned and released when no longer in used. The benefits of DHCP is that
minimizes configurations errors caused by manually assigning IP addresses and
the ability to centralized automated TCP/IP configurations. Is in the application
layer of the OSI model, which is layer 7.

a.   
http://www.dreamincode.net/forums/topic/233114-which-osi-layer-dhcp-belongs-to/

b.   
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/previous-versions/windows/it-pro/windows-server-2008-R2-and-2008/dd145320(v=ws.10)

c.   
https://www.isc.org/downloads/dhcp/

 

9.   
SLIP – Serial
Line Internet Protocol: A protocol used for the need to data link over
serial used very early in the development of TCP/IP. Is a way of sending IP
datagrams over serial connections linking computers together. SLIP never made
it to internet standards since it had no support for error detection, error
compression, system authentication and no standard way to define IP addressing
between two host. SLIP operates in the data link layer of the OSI model, which
is layer 2.

a.   
http://searchmicroservices.techtarget.com/definition/Serial-Line-Internet-Protocol-SLIP

b.   
http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_SerialLineInternetProtocolSLIP.htm

c.   
https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_ibm_i_72/rzaiy/rzaiyprotocol.htm

 

10.  ICMP –
Internet Control Message Protocol: An error reporting protocol that devices
such as routers send back error messages to the source of the IP address when
network problems are developed or occur. While ICMP is not use by end-user
applications, it is widely use by Systems Admins to troubleshoot connections
and as diagnostic utilizes such as pinging or tracerouting. ICMP has been used
to execute Dos attacks and known as ping of death, where sending IP packet
larger than what’s allow by the IP protocol. Doing this form of attack will
prevent the use from using the internet properly since the IP address is being
overloaded by incoming packets. Located in the layer 3 of the OSI model, which
is network layer.

a.   
https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/i/icmp.htm

b.   
https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/ICMP.html

c.   
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/ICMP